32. THE JULIUS ARNOLD CASE

A Buffalo Soldier circa 1890

When the Americans successfully captured Magalang in November 5, 1899, there are different military units of United States Army stationed in Magalang. Their headquarters was located in the convent of San Bartolome Church. In 1900, the 25th Infantry composed of Black American units of US Army replaced the 17th Infantry. These units garnered their nickname as the Buffalo Soldiers. However, when they arrived in Magalang, they inflicted abuses on the natives, and one of these incidents caught the attention of the United States Senate is the Julius Arnold case. Julius Arnold is a military musician of Company M, 25th Infantry. He was assigned in Magalang in 1900. According to the book, Affairs in the Philippine Islands, on January 15, 1900, Arnold forced a married woman, Leonora Salas of Magalang to have sexual intercourse with him. Salas resisted Arnold on his rape attempt, and she was shot by Arnold using his service pistol. Salas died on the same day due to gunshot wound. Arnold was eventually arrested and he was "dishonorably discharged from the service of the United States, forfeiting all pay allowances due him, and to be confined at hard labor, at such penitentiary as the reviewing authority may direct, for the remainder of his natural life" by the court martial. When the hearing of his case was ongoing, he was temporarily jailed in the old Bilibid Prisons. On April 25, 1900, a final verdict of the case was promulgated, the court martial sentenced him to death, "and the court manifested undeserved leniency". He served his remaining jail terms in the old Bilibid prisons and later, he was executed. 

Photo Credits:

Buffalo soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_soldier: Retrieved: April 18, 2017

Source:

Affairs in the Philippine Islands, Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate, 1902, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. pages 2113-2114.     

31. ORIGINAL HOLY WEEK MOMENTS IN MAGALANG

Dakit Cordero during Maundy Thursday with Rev. Fr. Pedro N. Magtoto
 with the 12 apostolados circa April 18, 1957.



Magaleños are so very religious in different celebrations especially to the paschal mystery of Jesus Christ. During the observance of the Holy Week in Magalang, these are the unforgettable moments in pertaining to the sacred celebration of Jesus' suffering, death and resurrection:

PABASA- this is one of the most popular scenes that Magalang can offer during Holy Week. During my childhood days, the pabasa was officially started in Ash Wednesday and it will end on early morning of Maundy Thursday. Barrio or sitio chapels or the bisitas will be converted into puni is where the pabasa will be held. The elders and even the young ladies in each barrios and sitios were reading the pasyun by chanting. Nowadays, the church authorities imposed restrictions on pabasa to celebrate the paschal mystery on theological aspect. Thus, they reduced the annual pabasa days up to only three days, from Holy Monday until the dawn of Maundy Thursday. Before, one of the best examples of pabasas is the puni of my great-grandaunt, Eusebia Dayrit Cabrera (1910-1989) or fondly known as Apung Biang. When the Ash Wednesday was near, she will make a small makeshift puni on their house yard in sitio Mapaco in barrio San Francisco in which the pabasa will be held. She had the old pasyun book written by a certain Leoncio Layug; which the elders will be use in chanting the pasyun. During Spanish period, my great great grandfather, Eulalio Sarmiento Mamangun (1868-1900) of Apalit, who was employed as escribano (secretary) of tribunal (municipal hall) of Magalang that time; he is one of the known pasyun writers in Magalang due to his beautiful penmanship. 

MANDARAME or MAGSALIBATBAT- we couldn't forget these scenes in Magalang during Holy Week. This ritual is practiced mostly by men. A group of flagellants will gather in a remote place in their barrios to wound themselves by using blades and they will cover their faces by a cloth. After they wound themselves, they will further wound their lacerations by striking their back of their body by using burilyo. Others, they will carrying a heavy cross made of hard wood or banana planks. They will walk within the highways and they will make every stopovers in every puni to pray for their personal intentions and to repent their sins. The church authorities discouraged this ritual nowadays, however, many of some of our folks are still practicing this ritual especially to the present young generations.

DOMINGGU NING PALASPAS or DOMINGO DE RAMOS- this is the annual commemoration of triumphal entry of Jesus in the gates of Jerusalem during Palm Sunday. Magaleños will gather in a certain place to meet the parish priest who will acting as the Jesus Christ. Then, the priest will bless the palm leaves or palaspas until they will march into the main road until they will enter into the main doors of the church, with the choirs singing alleluia. The blessed palm leaves or palaspas which is believed that it will used to prevent Satan to enter our households.

DAKIT CORDERO- this ritual is held annually during Maundy Thursday. The parish priest together with the twelve apostles will get the cordero from the assigned caretakers. Then, the priest together with the apostles will conduct prayers and they will held a small banquet. The cordero will be carry to the church to offer to the mass of the Last Supper. During the mass, the priest will wash the feet of the apostles or so called pamanos bitis. Then, after the mass, a vigilia king santissimo will be held until the church doors will be close on 12 midnight.

VIERNES SANTO LAME- after the stations of the cross was held, a procession of original Viernes Santo images will be taken place on afternoon. The original image of Santo Entierro owned by Gueco family will be processioned together with the other images like of Mater Dolorosa (formerly owned by Luciano-Tecson family, but later, it was transferred to the care of the church) Veronica (originally owned by David family, but it was passed to Lacson family), and Maria Magdalena (owned by Gueco family). The processionals will be wearing white or black colored clothes and they walk barefoot.    

SALUBUNG- this is the commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus from the death. A procession will be held when the image of Mary, wearing a black cloth will be eventually meet the resurrected Christ in front of the church. Then, a young angel will remove the black cloth of Mary; signaling the sorrow and grief is eventually over. A joyous alleluia will be sing by the church choir.

Photo Credit:

Dakit Cordero provided by Dr. Ignacio P. Morales circa April 18, 1957.