Torre Heliografico at Sta Cruz, Magalang, Pampanga

Torre Heliografico is one of the part of my childhood memories. When i was still young, i saw a tall structure in barrio Sta Cruz which make me curious. One day, i asked my former school service driver of what is that tower. He told me that was a former sugar boiling tower or known as bornal or imburnal. He told me that this tower once produces muscovado sugar and well known sweetener, panotsa. Another tower with the same structure is located in barrio San Isidro. The tower marked the location of the former farmland of my late grandfather who later sold the land to the Cariyana Monastery. However, when i first met Dr. Lino L. Dizon in 2011, he told me that those towers are former communication towers built during the Spanish period! He told me about their findings together with Mr. Joel P. Mallari who they conducted they comprehensive study of the towers in 2006. The story of these magnificent towers began during the revolutionary period.

Torre Heliografico at Cariyana Monastery compund

Those towers are built upon the orders of Spanish general Ricardo Monet in 1897. Those towers are made to send signals by using mirrored devices in Morse Code by flashing reflected sun rays to a another station. Heliograph describe that an instrument constructed with small mirrors made o turn upon both a horizontal and vertical axis, mounted upon a tripod, so arranged as to make the flashes appear and disappear in rapid succession, is to a limited extent use in the army; and by its messages may be transmitted much faster than with flags or torches, and can be used at longer ranges. The towers helped the Spanish army to destroy the revolutionary forces in Camansi in Mt. Arayat led by General Francisco Macabulos. Many towers are built encircling the towns of Magalang, and others in Mabalacat and Concepcion, Tarlac. After the revolution, these towers were abandoned and destroyed by natural calamities and treasure hunting. At present, only two towers are only remained intact. One in barrio Sta Cruz and in barrio San Isidro inside the premises of Cariyana Monastery. Recently, the towers declared as Important Cultural Properties by the National Museum of the Philippines.  

Photo Credits:

Torre Heliografico at barrio Sta Cruz; photo by Joel Pabustan Mallari, taken in 2006. 

Torre Heliografico at barrio San Isidro in Cariyana Monastery; photo taken in 2017 by Leo Villacarlos. Retrieved at iorbitnews.com. 


Dizon Lino L., 2008, Alaya, Kapampangan Research Journal; Juan D. Nepomuceno Center of Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City, pages 151-152, 193-194. 


Members of Mountain Side Club Standing (L-R):
Francisco Gamboa, Enrique Baluyut, Dr. Claro Ayuyao, Onofre Lacson
Nicasio Lacson and Onofre Mercado. Sitting (L-R):
Maria Elvira Luciano, Avelina Laxamana, Remedios Santos, Gilda Dizon,
Paz Gueco, Rosario Luciano and Rafaela Sanchez
Members of local elites in Pampanga are known for their stunning beauty, like woman would flaunt their best jewelry, gowns, and ternos, and men were would elegantly dress in their formal attire, and dance the night away. According to John Larkin, town and provincial social clubs demonstrated how the native upper class flourished under the new regime. These organizations are exclusive to the elites, provided among other things an opportunity for young single adults to socialize with and meet others of the same age and class. He added that Kapampangan elite turned their attention to peer group organizations, politics and extra political acivities. They resolved many if their economic and political problems by banding together into various agricultural organizations and political parties. Some examples of social groups like Young Generation in Macabebe, Kundiman and K ning K in Angeles, El Circulo Pampangueño, Club Limbangan, Ing BarangayClub Cervantino de San Fernando, Vinta Fernandina and El Circulo Fernandino in San Fernando, Thomasian in Sto Tomas, Masaya in Arayat, Batu Balani, Phi Beta and Maligaya in Guagua, Club Batala, Matula, Four Scathers, Circulo Escenico, Aficionados de Bacolor and Mekeni Club in Bacolor, Sporting Club in Candaba and Ing Masibucan in Concepcion, Tarlac. In Magalang, there are some various social elite clubs formed in the late 20s until early 30s. The examples of social elite clubs formed in Magalang are:

Standing (L-R):
Dr. Andres J. Luciano, Belen Gueco, Generosa Dizon, Filomena Baluyut
Arsenia Calma, Maria Feliciano, Florencia Feliciano and Rosa Luciano.
a. Mountain Side Club

Mountain Side Club was formed in 1928. This social elite club was the most prominent in Magalang in its heyday. The annual ball of this club was held in every last week of April or early week of May; and this was one of the kind in Magalang and in whole Pampanga. The venue of the ball was held either in the Magalang Auditorium or in the town plaza. It was reported by the Spanish daily, La Vanguardia that the 1933 ball, celebrated its fifth anniversary and the officers of the club are: Francisco Gamboa, president; Carina L. Luciano, vice president; Carolina P. Feliciano, treasurer and Ernesto Dizon, secretary. The guest of the April 16, 1933 ball, are the former members who are newly weds like Architect Fernando H. Ocampo and Lourdes M. Luciano; Jose Gueco and Patricia Lopez; Paul V. Limjengco and Humildad Wijangco; Dr. Conrado D. Ayuyao and Josefina Rodrigo (sister of former senator Francisco "Soc" Rodrigo); Raul Tecson and Virgilia Luciano; Florentino Sazon and Ocilia Lacson; Rafael Lazatin and Loreto P. Feliciano; and Emilio B. Lacson and Atanasia P. Lacson; plus with distinguished guests from Manila like 1929 Señorita Filipinas; Ms. Engracia Laconico, 1932 Señorita Filipinas; Ms. Emma Zamora and 1933 Señorita Filipinas; Ms. Pacita de los Reyes. Some prominent politicians are also distinguished guests in this annual ball like, Justice and Mrs. Jose Abad Santos, Senators Sotero Baluyut and Senator Benigno Aquino, Sr. and their wives, Pampanga governor Pablo Angeles David and Pasudeco President and Mrs. Jose de Leon.

Guests of Mountain Side Club: Sitting (L-R)
Doña Trinidad de Leon-Roxas, Dr. and Mrs. Jose del Rosario,
Senator Benigno Aquino, Sr. and Doña Aurora Aquino
In 1934 annual ball, it was more sophisticated with spectacular guests from the fields of politics and business. The ball was held in a constructed auditorium in town plaza decorated with poly-chrome lights. The lounge was painted with Japanese summer scenes with Japanese lanterns, gave more color to the lounge. The new officers of the club are, Dr. Claro D. Ayuyao, president, Gilda Dizon de Genuino, vice president, Rafaela Sanchez, treasurer and Nicasio L. Lacson, secretary. The distinguished guests of this annual ball are: Doña Trinidad de Leon-Roxas, wife of future president Manuel A. Roxas, Senator and Mrs. Benigno Aquino, Sr., Senator and Mrs. Sotero Baluyut, Justice Eduardo Gutierrez David, 1934 Miss Philippines, Clarita Tan Kiang, 1930 Miss Philippines, Monina Acuña and 1931 Miss Philippines Engracia Laonico, Pampanga Governor and Mrs. Pablo Angeles David, and many others came from distinguished families from different towns of Pampanga. In the same year also, the club was restructured into two groups, the Junior Mountain Side Club and Senior Mountain Side Club. The junior group held an spectacular Balintawak dance ball held at the residence of Catalina A. Gueco.

Ladies of Mountain Side Club, standing (L-R):
Filomena Baluyut, Paciencia Gomez, Rosario Luciano, Monina Acuña,
Belen Gueco, Clarita Tan Kiang, Engracia Laconico, Gilda Dizon and Fe Lagdameo
The 1935 annual ball of the club was held in Magalang Auditorium. The music ball was played by Orquesta Ylaya, and the distinguished guests of the ball are: future president Sergio Osmeña, Don Honorio Ventura, Jose Fausto and members from distinguished families came from Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija and Manila. The club awarded Gloria S. Dizon as the best mestisa costume while Lucy Pamintuan was awarded as the best European costume. The officers of the club are Amado Luciano, president, Rita Gueco , vice president, Dr. Salvador Gueco, secretary and Estrella Wijangco, treasurer. In 1936 annual ball, the ball was mostly organized by the Junior Mountain Side Club with the cooperation of Senior Mountain Side club. The organizers are Gertrudes Gueco, Josefina Luciano, Rosario Tumang, Consuelo Wijangco, Catalina Gueco, Purita Mercado, Virgilio Lacson, Wilson Gueco, Isidoro Chancoco, Martin Mercado, Ernesto Dayrit and Orencio Gueco. The theme of the ball was Dance in a Rose. The ladies wore pink ternos and the orchestra played special repertoire like Rose Marie, The Rose in Hair, Rose of the Rancho, So Red the Rose, Roses in the Rain, Moonlight and Roses, I Sent My Love With Rose, Rosa Mia, Roses of Picardy, You Gave Me A Rose and many others. Lucy Pamintuan and Filomena Baluyut won special prizes in this ball. The annual balls of Mountain Side Club was temporarily halted during the Japanese period. It was resumed after the war. During the 50s annual balls, the distinguished guests of Mountain Side Club are future president Diosdado P. Macapagal, future first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos, Rogelio dela Rosa and other big stars from business and movie industries. The Mountain Side Club marked its end in 1963, after an incident when the alleged Huks assassinated Mayor Benedicto T. Dayrit in the annual ball of the club in December 28, 1963. After that incident, the prestigious Mountain Side Club never recovered from the shocks of Huk terror. In recent years, some of the prominent Magaleños attempted to revive this prestigious club, but failed.

b. Ing E-Malulumpawi

This small elite club was founded by Justice Conrado R. Gwekoh. The Spanish daily La Vanguardia reported that this club organized a splendid grand ball in the municipal hall of Magalang for the newly bar passer, the future justice Augusto M. Luciano. This grand ball was held on November 4, 1933 and their guests are: Delfina Luciano, Belen Gueco, Rosa Luciano, Filomena Baluyut, Felisa Lauchengco, Arsenia Calma, Carolina Vega, Miguela Navarro, Rafaela Sanchez, Angela Manaloto, Luzvimind Gwekoh, Arcadia Manaloto, Potenciana Santos, Magdalena Ayuyao, Magdalena Navarro, Olimpia Santos, Nunilon Ayuyao, Justina Santiago, Remedios Santos, Isabel Trinidad, Jose F. Luciano, Florencio L. Tumang, Isabelo Sanchez, Silvestre Cosio, Jose D. Feliciano, Jose M. Navarro, Raymundo Sanchez, Eladio A. Santos, Aristedes Luciano, Dominador Tumang, Jesus Gueco, Juan Gamboa, Benjamin Gwekoh, Manuel Tumang, Dr. Miguel Dayrit, Dr. Claro Feliciano, Dr. Claro Ayuyao, Atty. Isidoro Ayuyao, Atty. Jose C. Morales, Atty. Artemio Vega, Atty. Gil B. Galang, Atty. Silvestre Punzalan, Silvestre Bautista, Marcos Valencia, Demetrio Lacsamana and others. The fate of this group is still unknown.

c. Ing Maldang Caladua

This small elite club was founded by the prominent elite members of Magalang. This club was probably founded in 1934. The managers of this club are Francisco Gamboa and  Fe Laureano Lacson. A noted spectacular grand ball was organized on New Year's Eve in 1935. The venue of this grand ball was held in the lounge of municipal hall. The front of the municipal hall was decorated with hundreds of poly-chrome lights with balloons, confetti, trumpets and hats. This ball invited various personalities in Pampanga and neighboring provinces to witness the lavish party that promised to "eclipse the whole town".  The organizers are the leading upper society members of Magalang like Dr. Salvador Gueco, Dr. Servillano Ayuyao, Dr. Claro Feliciano, Emilio B. Lacson, Raymundo Sanchez, Florencio Tumang and Crispulo Santos. The ladies committee are composed of Rosario Luciano, Domitila Mercado, Magdalena Ayuyao, Eugenia Lising, Luzvimind Gwekoh and Filomena Baluyut.

d. El Club S.O.S 

This small elite club was founded in barrio Tinabang (Sto Rosario) in Magalang. The only noted party organized by this club was held in barrio fiesta on May 28, 1935. The party was held in the Sto Rosario Elementary School premises decorated with lush foliage and lovely flowers. The party music was played by the Melody Boys orchestra. The organizers of this ball was mostly members of Mountain Side Club. The committee was composed of Domitila Mercado, Felicidad de Jesus, Adela Contreras, Felicidad Tumang, Purita Dizon, Soledad Datu, Rafaela Sanchez, Purita Tiglao, Dr. Claro Ayuyao, Nicasio Lacson, Rustico Navarro, Ernesto Dizon, Salvador Datu, Martin Mercado, Onofre Lacson and Francisco Jocson.

Photo Credits:

Members of Mountain Side club: De la esplendida fiesta del Mountain Side Club, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, May 4, 1935.

Second Photo: En la suntuosa fiesta del Mountain Side club, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, April 11, 1934.

Guests of Mountain Side club: Un notable acontecimiento social en Pampanga, Seccion de Rotograbado, La Vanguardia, Manila, April 14, 1934.

Beautiful Ladies in Mountain Side club: Un notable acontecimiento social en Pampanga, Seccion de Rotograbado, La Vanguardia, Manila, April 14, 1934.


Playgrounds of the Kapampangan Elite by Ivan Anthony Henares, A Tale of Two Cities, Singsing, Juan D. Nepomuceno Center of Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City, page 116.

For Mountainside Club:

Mountain Side Club en su 5.0 año de vida, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, April 5, 1933 page 5.

Ochocientas personas concurren el baile by P.G. Bustos, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, April 11, 1934 page 5.

Otra fiesta del Mountain Side Club, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, June 4, 1934, page 5.

Muchos de Manila asisten al baile en Magalang, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, May 3, 1935, page 5.

"Dance in Rose", con un repertorio especial de piezas bailables sera la proxima fiesta del "Side Club", Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, May 21, 1936, page 5.

For Ing Maldang Caladua:

Animado baile de dado el pueblo de Magalang, Portavoz de las Provincias, La Vanguardia, Manila, November 6, 1934, page 2.

Baile en Magalang, La Vanguardia, Manila, December 14, 1934, page 7.

Rumbosa fiesta Navidad en Magalang, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, December 26, 1934, page 5.

Sensacional despedida de año de la Pampanga, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, December 28, 1934, page 5.

For Ing E-Malulumpawi:

Homenaje a un nuevo abogado de la Pampanga, Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, November 11, 1933 page 7.

For El Club S.O.S.:

El Club S.O.S., Pagina Social, La Vanguardia, Manila, May 27, 1935 page 5.


Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew the Apostle 

St. Bartholomew the Apostle or also known as San Bartolome Apostol is the patron saint of Magalang. Every August 24, we celebrate his feast day; commemorating his sacrifices and martyrdom to spread the good news of our Lord. But, who is St. Bartholomew? How he was one of the twelve apostles of the Lord? According to Biblical narratives especially in John 1:43-51, Bartholomew was known also as Nathanael. His connection to the Lord started when his friend Philip who later become also one of the apostles; told him, "We have found the one whom Moses wrote about in the Book of the Law and whom the prophets also wrote about". Nathanael, known for being frank and skeptic was attracted by Philip's remark. "Can anything good come from the Nazareth?". Neverless, Philip persuaded Nathanael to see Jesus; and when Jesus see Nathanael, he told that he is the "the true Israelite, incapable of deceit". Then Nathanael asked Jesus, "How did you know me?". Jesus answered that he saw under the fig tree before Philip called him. Then Nathanael told Jesus, "You are the son of God, and king of Israel". Jesus told Nathanael that "You will see greater things than these".  Then Nathanael or Bartholomew started follow Jesus. When the apostles commissioned, Bartholomew and Judas Thaddaeus introduced Christianity to Armenia. He converted Polymius, king of Armenia to Christianity. Astyages, Polymius brother consequently ordered Bartholomew's execution. According to traditions, he was flayed alive, and beheaded. Other sources told that he was even crucified downward.

Image of San Jose (left) and the original image of
San Bartolome Apostol (right)
(San Bartolome Parish, Magalang, Pampanga)

When the Augustinians established Magalang in April 30, 1605, it was placed under the protection of San Bartolome Apostol. Many years had past, Magaleños revered San Bartolome as their protector during revolts, wars and calamities. As remarked by Louis A. Stone, an American soldier of Company I, 41st Infantry stationed in Magalang church convent in 1901, he observed the sacredness of Magaleños during the feast of San Bartolome. He remarked that, "Nothing much of interest happened in San Pedro de Magalang, until the twenty fourth of August, then, there came a sacred celebration of St. Bartholomew's day by the natives of this little mountain town. Long day before, they started their music and processions all over the town. Being assisted by all natives around the town and the nearby villages, they had been preparing for this grand feast for several days. And when the time came for the celebration, they were ready. After marching around the town for a while, and playing their national airs, they repaired to the church and there, went through a solemn service for an hour or two, in memory of their departed saint. After which they all went to their homes of their friends, where the fattened calf had been killed, and the feast was consumed with considerable appetite ". 

 Image of San Bartolome Apostol
located in San Bartolome Chapel, San Bartolome,
Concepcion, Tarlac.
San Bartolome's old image in San Bartolome Church in Magalang was carved during the administration of Fr. Fernando Vasquez, OSA, who was credited for the installation of finishing touches of the church. The image itself was formerly located in the main altar of the church. However, due to preservation, it was placed in the old baptistery of the church. The features of this image are the apostle itself is holding a knife was said to be used in flaying his skin, and a bible symbolizing its mission to carry the good news of the Lord. The old image of San Bartolome in barrio San Bartolome, Concepcion, Tarlac is said to be the original image of the old Magalang church located in the same place, and the former earned the moniker as balen melacuan. According to a popular account, the said image was prevented by the old residents of San Bartolome to be brought by the group of settlers, transferring the town proper to the present site in barrio San Pedro in 1863. Thus, the image remained in barrio San Bartolome until present. Its chapel was made up of stones taken from the old ruins of old Magalang church flooded by the disastrous flood in 1863. The features of the image are same with the old image of San Bartolome in Magalang, however, it has a bronze chain on his hand together with the bible and he standing above the falling Satan. 

Repository bearing the relics of San Bartolome Apostol
located in San Bartolome Parish, Magalang

San Bartolome's relics are located in different parts of Europe. His large skin and many bones are initially located in the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew the Apostle in Lipari, Sicily; however they were transferred in Basilica of San Bartolomeo in Benevento, Italy. A small part of relics were given by Emperor Otto II to Rome and it was kept in the basilica of San Bartolomeo, all'Isola in Rome. A small relic of San Bartolome was recently enshrined in San Bartolome Parish in Magalang last July 21, 2017, and it was the first San Bartolome church all over the Philippines had this sacred relic. Miracles are attributed to San Bartolome in association of heavy objects. It was credited also for saving many lives in Magalang during Japanese occupation. San Bartolome is also the patron saint of tanners, shoemakers, butchers, and even persons with neurological diseases. San Bartolome together with San Judas Tadeo is the patron saint of Armenia. In the Philippines, aside from Magalang, the city of Malabon; Catbalogan, Samar; San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija and the small barrios of San Bartolome in Sta. Ana, Pampanga and San Bartolome, Sto Tomas, Pampanga is under the patronage also of San Bartolome. Some works of art are dedicated to San Bartolome. The famous is the masterpiece of Michaelangelo, The Last Judgement in Sistine Chapel, Vatican; where the image of San Bartolome was painted and he was holding a knife and his whole flayed skin bearing the likeness of Michaelangelo. The biggest and mellowest San Bartolome bell of San Bartolome Church in Magalang was also dedicated by the parish priest of Magalang, Fr. Fernando Vasquez, OSA, to San Bartolome crafted by Hilario Sunico in 1890.  

Photo Credits:


The remaining photos are came from the author's personal camera shots.


Saint Bartholomew the Apostle skinned alive for spreading his faith by Corazon Damo Santiago, www.businessmirror.com.ph; issued, August 28, 2014.

Stone, Louis A., Two Years in the United States Volunteer Army, Or Around the World Under the Stars and Stripes, Webster Country Times, Clay Kentucky, 1901. page 65. 


In the observance of the History month this August; and the upcoming celebration of National Heroes' Day, we must remember the contributions of Magaleños for their heroic acts for attaining freedom and their determination to fight the individual rights of every Magaleños and every Filipinos. In this post, these are some Magaleños who valiantly contributed their acts to preserve freedom and uphold social justice:

Lorenzo D. Camaya- a native of neighboring town of Angeles, born in September 2, 1863 to Adriano Camaya and Inocencia Dayrit. They later migrated to Magalang to seek greener pastures. Lorenzo was appointed as teniente tres by the Spanish government in 1887. However, he secretly joined the Katipunan. In 1897, together with the young Major Servillano Aquino, they hatched a plan together with prominent elites of Magalang on how to liberate the town from the Spanish rule. Lorenzo in that time was initially enlisted as teniente under the command of General Francisco MacabulosDue to his later exploits, he was promoted to comandante (major). He fought valiantly in battle of Camansi together with other Magaleños like Candido Niceta and Carlos Guiao. He also fought the breakaway forces of General Pedro Pedroche in old Magalang church convent in 1898. He further promoted to coronel (colonel) of the revolutionary army; and he was assigned in Tarlac. He was captured by the Americans in 1900 and he was sentenced to death. He was granted pardon in 1904 and he returned in Magalang. He married Andrea Mendoza Lacson, daughter of former gobernadorcillo of Magalang, Don Aniceto S. Lacson in July 13, 1917. Two years later, Lorenzo died in November 21, 1919. His only child, Anunciacion was adopted by his nephew, Eusebio Aquino, who later become the local socialist leader of Magalang and second in command of Hukbalahap during Japanese occupation. 

Members of Katipunan Chapter of Barrio La Paz- a certain Juan Culantiro, right hand man of Lt. Lorenzo D. Camaya secretly organized a Katipunan chapter in barrio La Paz. The new members initiated pacto de sangre and they signed their signature using their own blood. Among the recruits are, Feliciano Torres, Gregorio Mallari, Froilan Pineda, Maximo Manabat and others. Their weapons used are talibong and a dagger.  

Members of Katipunan Chapter of Barrio Sto Rosario- the group of Capt. Gregorio Samia, Lt. Lino Tayag, Lt. Enrique Datu and their 83 recruits initiated the pacto de sangre with the forces of General Francisco Macabulos. Half of members of this chapter was placed under the command of Lt. Lino Tayag. He collected the members' contributions and he secretly delivered to General Macabulos, who was encamped in Camansi in Mt. Arayat. 

Eusebio Aquino- a native of Concepcion, Tarlac, he was related by blood to General Servillano Aquino. He later setup his blacksmith shop in barrio San Nicolas in Magalang, (in the present day old Pasudeco terminal). He was known for his skills in creating farm tools. He also served as supervisor in different construction projects. One of the projects he supervised is the construction of Shop Building (Industrial Arts building) of Magalang Elementary School in 1932. In 1934, he joined the local chapter of Aguman ning Maldang Talapagobra, founded by Pedro Abad Santos. In 1937, he was fielded by AMT in local elections, but he was defeated by the former police chief, Jose M. Navarro. He again, ran for mayoralty post in 1940 but he was defeated again by Jose M. Navarro. In 1942, he was the one of the founding fathers of Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon known as Hukbalahap. He was then second commanding officer of the entire movement; he setup his headquarters in Camansi in Mt. Arayat; and he was credited for saving several American soldiers who escaped from Death March and some American airmen. He led the Squadron 3-V together with his sons, Pablo (Commander Paul) and Felix (Commander Flax) and an amazona, Remedios Gomez (Commander Liwayway). This squadron inflicted heavy losses against the Japanese forces attempted to capture Camansi. His forces are also responsible to the early liberation of Magalang in January, 1945; before the Americans entered the town. After the war, Huks continued their resistance against the new republic of the Philippines. However, Tatang Bio, died and he was buried in the foothills of Mt. Pinatubo. His last wish that his remains "will not be retrieved until the fruits of the revolution become a reality". Tatang Bio married Ciriaca Gabriel of Mexico, Pampanga and they had five children; Abelardo, Aquilino (Commander Kinung, who also ran in mayoralty contest in Magalang in 1955, but he was defeated by his relative, Orencio A. Gueco), Pablo (Commander Paul) married Brigida Manaloto, Felix (Commander Flax) married Remedios del Mundo, (a daughter of Faustino del Mundo who will led a mafia shadow government in 1960s. He was later known as Commander Sumulong). An only daughter, Gloria married Peregrino Taruc, brother of Huk supremo, Luis Taruc.

Vivencio B. Cuyugan, Sr.- born in January 13, 1895 in San Fernando, Pampanga to Saturnino P. Cuyugan and Antonia Y. Baron of Magalang. He obtained law in Northwestern University in the United States. He supported his law studies in the United States through boxing. During his stay in the United States, he initially learned socialism through his lawyer, Clarence Darrow in Big Chicago Brawl in 1926. He met Darrow when the elder Cuyugan landed in jail after he defended a certain Marasigan, a native of Batangas. The latter lost his an ear when an apparent racists ganged up on him in a bar where Filipinos are banned. The Filipino community there pooled funds and hired Darrow to defend Cuyugan. He was freed in no time. Upon his return to the Philippines, he managed his vast estate in barrio Sta Maria in Magalang and he treated his tenants firmly and equally. His influence in socialism grew when he joined Pedro Abad Santos' Socialist Party of the Philippines. He later elected as municipal vice president of San Fernando in 1927 and 1931. In 1937, he was elected the first socialist mayor of San Fernando and whole over the Philippines under the Socialist Party of the Philippines. During the war, he was among the founders of Hukbalahap. He also organized the first Hukbalahap squadron in barrio Sta Maria in Magalang composed of his loyal tenants. He served as mayor of San Fernando until the liberation; however, the Americans removed him as mayor in 1945 due to his leadership of Hukbalahap. After the war, he continued his advocacy for the emancipation and upholding the rights of the farmers and workers. He also gave away his landholdings to his tenants. He also supported labor unions. He also known for his advocacy for the protection of the environment; who fought the Pampanga Sugar Development Company or known as Pasudeco; whom the socialists had accused of polluting the San Fernando River. However, the elder Cuyugan and his family were put to jail and tortured in 1953 on a charge that he was a communist. He died in Manila in March 16, 1971. He married Felisa Amurao and they had six children; Aida, Fernando, Fe, Vivencio, Jr., Panopio and Maria Luisa.

Photo Credits:

www.oocities.org. Retrieved: August 12, 2017


Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila (2016), National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 35-42 and 63-71.

National historical agency recognizes Pampanga's socialist mayor by Tonette Orejas, March 17, 2017 www.newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved: August 13, 2017.

Additional information provided by Vivencio Amurao Cuyugan, Jr., son of the late mayor Vivencio B. Cuyugan, Sr.



Standing L-R; Virgilio Lising Lacson, Marina del Rosario Lacson (Virgilio's wife), Justina Lacson Sazon, (Virgilio's niece) and Ernesto Aragon (Justina's husband). Sitting L-R; Romana Lising de Lacson, Emilia P. Lising and Antonina Lising Vda de Luciano. Sitting in front: Roy del Rosario Lacson
The Lisings of Magalang traced their ancestry to the couple, Don Isaac Liwanag Lising, teniente mayor (vice mayor) of Magalang and Doña Apolonia Pineda. Their children are; Hilaria, Clotilde, Marcelo, Emilia, Adela, Antonina, Romana, and Florentino. Hilaria married Dr. Filomeno Sanchez and they had son, Raymundo married Lucila Andres Dayrit, daughter of Don Ladislao Canlas Dayrit and Doña Maria Andres of barrio Sta Cruz. 

Raymundo Lising Sanchez (standing) and Lucila A. Dayrit (sitting)
Clotilde married Victor Calaguas Dayrit, son of Don Valentin Lansang Dayrit, gobernadorcillo of Magalang in 1869-1871 and his wife, Doña Placida Calaguas of barrio San Francisco. Marcelo married Engracia Ocampo Lacson, daughter of Don Anacleto Suarez Lacson, gobernadorcillo of Magalang in 1871-1873 and his wife, Doña Luisa Quiazon de Ocampo. The couple had one daughter, Eugenia (known as Apung Sening) later married Francisco Manalo of Bacolor, Pampanga. 

Victor Calaguas Dayrit (standing) Clotilde Lising (sitting on left) and Antonina P. Lising (sitting below)
Picture taken on Victor and Clotilde's wedding day. Antonina stood as bridesmaid. 
Adela married schoolteacher, Estanislao Mañago of Mexico, Pampanga and they had two daughters, Lilia Francisca married Tito Villavicencio and Josefina. Romana married Fidel Ocampo Lacson (youngest brother of Engracia, and making the couples as brothers and sisters-in-laws as well!) and their children are, Nicasio married Natividad Roa Estagle of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija, Virgilio married Marina Castro del Rosario, a schoolteacher from Angeles, Alberto married Angelita Aguas of San Fernando, and Fernando. Florentino, a schoolteacher of Magalang Elementary School married his fellow schoolteacher, Filomena Chatengco of Porac, Pampanga and their daughter, Amelia married Daniel Tayag Lacson, the longest serving mayor of Magalang (1968-1986). Antonina married Dr. Andres J. Luciano on their old age; and Emilia remained single for the rest of her life.

Photo Credits:

Picture of Romana, Emilia and Antonina Lising, courtesy of the late Mr. Eduardo J.E. Lacson

Wedding of Raymundo Sanchez and Lucila Dayrit, courtesy of Dr. Ignacio P. Morales

Wedding picture of Victor Dayrit and Clotilde Dayrit, courtesy of Angeles University Foundation, Institute of Kapampangan Studies.


Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila (2016), National Commission for Culture and the Arts, page 108. 


Natural disasters are made by the nature. It us unpredictable during older times. And when it comes, it will destroy properties and perish many lives. In Magalang, there are some unforgettable natural disasters that struck the town and changed its history. 

1858- torrential rains poured all over Luzon. A report signed on November 11 on the same year by the gobernadorcillo that time, Don Salvador Manalo that due to heavy rains, Parua River was overflowed and destroyed everything. All of the bridges crossing the river are destroyed, canals are also destroyed and roads are not accessible. At the same time, the comandante of Comandancia Militar de Tarlac that time, Don Sebastian Hernandez reported that Magalang was like of a huge lake due to floods. 

1863- on June 3, a strong earthquake struck the town and left considerable damage. Torrential rains poured again on Magalang and flooded the town once again. This huge disaster prompted Governor General Rafael Echague Birmingham to issue expediente dated December 3 on the same year. The expediente ordered the transfer of Magalang from barrio San Bartolome to high elevated place of Talimunduc, located in barrio San Pedro. It also stated in the expediente the creation of new town of Concepcion; composed of former barrios of Magalang located on north bank of Parua River. The actual transfer was done in December 13 according to the report penned by Fr. Ignacio Manzanares, OSA, cura parocco of Magalang. While the new town of Concepcion was established in barrio Matondo and later it was transfer once again in the present site. 

1867- a strong storm struck Central Luzon. Some provinces in Pampanga including Magalang was flooded. The roads linking to the town of Sta Ana are not passable. 

1936- a powerful storm pounded Central Luzon including Magalang; leaving ten dead when their boat was capsized. Other scattered deaths are reported. 

1972- tropical depression Didang pounded Central Luzon; leaving Pampanga including Magalang flooded. On the same year, a month long torrential rains poured all over Luzon due to circulation of southwest monsoon by the super typhoon Gloring. This unstoppable rains locally known as siyam-siyam flooded all over Luzon. This natural disaster known as the 1972 Luzon Great Flood

1991- Mt. Pinatubo erupted and its ashes were mixed with strong rains brought by the strong typhoon Diding. This mixture of ash and rainwater known as lahar flowed in major rivers and tributaries in Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales destroyed houses and properties. Lahar flowed into Parua River and destroyed houses in Concepcion. The lahar flows slightly flowed into barrio San Roque and Navaling in Magalang. Slight damages were reported.    

1995- tropical storm Mameng crossed Central Luzon leaving whole Pampanga flooded. The town proper of Magalang was also flooded due to overflowing of streams. It was reported that a small dam was destroyed and huge waters further flooded Magalang. 

Photo Credit: 



Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila (2016), National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 28, 29, 30, 60, 78 and 80.


Every June 12 each year, the Philippines celebrates the one of the important dates in our Philippine history, the Independence Day. Our first president, Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence from Spain in his balcony in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898. However, it was only during the presidency of our own Kapampangan president Diosdado P. Macapagal moved the celebration from July 4 to June 12. Thus, many colorful celebrations were held throughout the Philippines, especially in the neighboring town of Angeles, whom it witnessed the first celebration of the Philippine independence in 1899. 

The town of Magalang is one of the historic places in Pampanga. Its contribution during the revolution is enormous, due to the valiant Magaleños who fought for the independence from Spain and its proximity to the historic places such as Camansi, located in Magalang side of Mt. Arayat. In line of commemoration of Philippine independence, these are the some important dates in Magalang in relation to the attaining independence:

September 8, 1896- a combined Filipino volunteers from Bulacan, and Nueva Ecija sucessfully crushed the group of revolutionaries in Magalang.

February 18, 1897- a plan was hatched in the house of Don Tomas Dizon (present site of Blessed Sacrament Chapel) to free Magalang from Spanish rule. The conspirators are Major Servillano Aquino, Lt. Lorenzo D. Camaya, Don Cayetano Rivera, Don Ladislao C. Dayrit and some local elite supporters such as Don Teopisto Ganzon, Don Daniel O. Lacson, Don Buenaventura Paras, Don Juan Feliciano and Don Paulino Gueco. 

August 29, 1897- a band of revolutionaries attacked Magalang, but it was repelled by the Spanish forces. Thirteen revolutionaries killed. 

November 27, 1897- the Spanish general, Ricardo Monet led two columns to capture the revolutionaries' base in Camansi. Despite of windy rainstorm, the two columns gained opposite edges of the plateau by ten o'clock in the morning. By eleven o'clock, the two columns encircled the revolutionaries led by General Francisco Macabulos; forced to abandon their first line of defense due to heavy resistance. The Spanish troops of Lt. Col. Jose Maria Olaguer Feliu lose 23 men; while those of Major Angel Fernandez lose 4 men and 19 injured. Aside from Macabulos, his wife Dorotea Pascual also holed up in Camansi; together with Magaleños, Candido Niceta, Carlos Guiao, and the Chinese general, Jose Ignacio Paua. 

November 28, 1897- the troops of Lt. Col. Olaguer Feliu resumed the battle to capture Camansi. They successfully captured the fort due to intense artillery bombing against the revolutionaries. The battled concluded with 93 revolutionaries dead, and numerous equipment with horses and carabaos were captured. However, General Macabulos and his subordinates especially Major Servillano Aquino escaped. 

May 8, 1898- to monitor the revolutionaries' movement in Mt. Arayat, an order was issued by General Ricardo Monet to construct blok haus located in barrio San Antonio. Heliograph towers was also constructed to send Morse code signals to other Spanish posts around Magalang. The surviving heliograph towers were still seen in barrios Sta Cruz and San Isidro, inside of Cariyana Monastery. These towers are recently declared as Important Cultural Properties by National Museum. 

June 26, 1898- the hostilities against Spaniards resumed. Magalang joined with the towns of Bacolor, Mexico, and Arayat and they swear their allegiance to Katipunan. On that day, the revolutionaries arrested the last Augustinian parish priest of Magalang, Fr. Pedro Diez Ubierna in Magalang church convent. He was brought to the town tribunal together with two Spaniards. It was reported that he was maltreated by the revolutionaries. 

December 18, 1898- some Spanish prisoners were taken to the Magalang church convent including the last Augustinian parish priest of San Fernando, Fr. Antonio Redondo. A fierce attack was conducted by the forces of Gen. Pedro Pedroche against the forces of Magaleño colonel Lorenzo D. Camaya in Magalang church convent. However, the attack was repelled. The Spanish prisoners were freed later in 1899 in orders of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Fr. Redondo died before the order was issued.   

Photo Credit:



Alcubierre, Casimiro, España en Filipinas, Los Ultimos Años Su De Dominacion en el Archipelago, El Imparcial, Manila, 1910 pages 52-55.

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2016.

Dizon Lino L., Alaya, Kapampangan Research Journal; Juan D. Nepomuceno Center of Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City, 2008. page 152.

Joaquin, Nick, Aquinos of Tarlac, Manila, Solar Publishing Corporation, 1986.

Rodriguez-Prada, Fr. Jose, Memorias de Un Prisionero Durante La Revolucion Filipina, Imprenta de la Viuda e Hija de Gomez Fuentenebero, 1901.

The Philippine Rebellion, The Utica Observer, August 30, 1897.

Three Significant Battles in Pampanga by: Marco D. Nepomuceno https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/alt.language.kapampangan/RwG5aML_fwc; Retrieved: June 10, 2017