Promoting products and services in Magalang is promoted through simple advertisements. The old ads are usually published in some local periodicals in Pampanga; and also in souvenir programs of the local government of Magalang. They served also as sponsors in various activities in the town. One of the example is an ad of Parent's Teachers Association of Magalang Elementary School (above); together with the officers in School Year 1954-1955. Other ads also promoting different educational institutions in Magalang. One of the example is the ad of the first private high school institution; the Magalang Institute (below). The ad of the school has a greeting for the celebration of "foundation day" of the town; despite the original founding date of the town is April 30, 1605. 

However, Magalang Institute since its founding year in 1946 by the late Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao, it proudly announced that the school garnered the second highest score in Pampanga and forty ninth among the schools in the Philippines. The school principal that time is Mrs. Rosa Naguit de la Paz; and school director, Dr. Claro D. Ayuyao. Magalang Institute is still operational today and it is one of the largest private high school institutions of Magalang. Dr. Nunilon G. Ayuyao, daughter of Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao is the present director of the school.

The ad of Students Vocational School (above), located in San Fernando was founded by Mr. Ciriaco C. Toledano, who hailed from barrio San Miguel, Magalang, Pampanga. The school offered short classes in typewriting, stenography and bookkeeping.


The retail trade in Magalang was dominated by Chinese immigrants. One of these retail stores was owned by Mr. Pablo Siy Hian (above), who ran a grocery store. Another one was owned by Mr. Alfonso Chan Gioc, fondly known as Dioca. He operated La Suerte Bakery and General Merchandise (below) who eventually known today as Chan Gioc Minimart. Dioca has two sons, Felix and Fernando. Felix established FCC Supermarket while Fernando inherited the operations of La Suerte. 

However, a prosperous Magaleño entrepreneur proudly announced on his ad that his business was "100% Filipino Capital". The Paras Bakery and Grocery Store (below) was owned by Mr. Emilio P. Paras, a former municipal councilor of Magalang. His business was still operational, but the only bakery remained in operation. The operation of the bakery was passed to his daughter, Carmelita Lacson Paras. 

A lone cooperative store was setup to sell goods in reasonable price. From dry and canned goods, glass wares, fancy items and even appliances were the products of Magalang Cooperative Store (below). This cooperative store was later folded up.

Luckily, the sleepy town has a photo studio who offered services to capture photographs in different occasions. Loleng's Art Studio (below) was the precursor of now defunct Pol Studio, a known photo studio in Magalang during 70s to 90s. operated by the late Mr. Apolonio "Pol" Cruz. 

If Pampanga had Pambusco, Magalang had a local bus company serving Magaleños going to Angeles. The Pacemaker Transportation (below) was owned by Mr. Jose P. Feliciano; fondly known as JP. His majestic mansion is located near the public market. After JP's death, Pacemaker was gradually ceased its operations. Later, a local bus line Thames, owned by the late Mr. Edmundo Tayag; rose to prominence as one of the leading bus company in Magalang serving Angeles-Magalang route. Today, few buses was still seen in Magalang; serving the commuters going to Angeles. 


Obviously, Magalang is an agricultural town. Rice and sugarcane is the main crops of the town. Some landowners devoted their lands in cultivation of rice; and they established rice mills to buy the rice produced by the fellow landowners and small farmers. Two rice mills is the largest in the town. The Esperanza Vda. de Baluyut rice mill (below) was located in barrio San Pedro II. The owner itself fondly known her as Maestrang Atsang was a retired school teacher of Magalang Elementary School. She passed the operations of the mill to her daughter, Filomena married to Jose P. Feliciano. Today, this old rice mill was already demolished.

Another one is the David-Feliciano rice mill (below) located in barrio San Nicolas I, across the old Pasudeco station. The rice mill is said one of the modern in that time, established by Pablo M. David. The operations of the mill was passed to his daughter, Maria F. David, fondly known her as Apung Kiting. The said rice mill was already demolished, and some ruins of this rice mill was still be seen.

Medicines are formulated by some of the pharmacists in Magalang. One of the known pharmacies in the town, is the pharmacy owned by the late Gerardo F. Feliciano. He was pharmacist in profession and also a landowner. Unfortunately, he was kidnapped and ambushed by the alleged Huks. His pharmacy, Farmacia La Magaleña (below, left) passed to his wife, Beatriz D. Vda, de Feliciano.

Another pharmacy named the patron saint of the town, San Bartolome Apostol. The pharmacy, Botica San Bartolome (above, right) was established by Mr. Cezar T. Zablan, a former medicine student. These two pharmacies ceased its operations.

Landlords dominated the economic and social life of the Magaleños. Aside from local elite clubs, such as El Circulo Magaleño and Mountainside club, an association was established to protect the interests of the landowners. The Magalang Planters Association Incorporated (above) was formed by prominent Magaleño landowners. In 1954, Mr. Jose P. Feliciano was the president of the organization.

Outside Magalang, there are some enterprises were setup by the Magaleños in different products and services offered. One of them is a small local periodical based in San Fernando. The local daily, Capampangan, Ing Pajayagan Yu (above) was setup by Mr. Salvador G. Tumang, who hailed from Magalang.

Another one is an insurance company based in Manila, owned by Mr. Angeles P. Mariano of San Pedro I, Magalang. His insurance business offered fire and marine insurance, bonds and casualty insurance, worksmen compensation, and they even offered loans and mortgages and motor cars. The A.P. Mariano and Company Incorporated (above) was located in Escolta, Manila.

Lastly, a two sisters hailed from barrio San Antonio, Magalang and they engaged in textile dealership in Manila. The sisters, Aurea Samson Perez (above, left) and Juanita Samson (above, right)  are daughters of Isaac David Lising, a grandson of Don Juan David, gobernadorcillo of Magalang in 1858. Don Juan David is a brother of Doña Silvina David, matriarch of prominent Luciano families.


Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang, 1954.


Magaleños, are naturally intelligent, and mostly, from the elite class who obtained quality education. All of them pursued in different degrees, and they studied in best schools in Manila and United States. Some of these professionals preferred to practice their profession in Magalang, while others practiced their profession in Manila and other countries. In the old souvenir program of Magalang entitled, Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang published in 1954, there is a section dedicated to those "professionals of Magalang" however, not all of them are native born of Magalang. Some of the professionals are from other towns who married a Magaleña, while others they prefer to practice their profession in Magalang permanently. These are the lists of Magaleño professionals who are categorized in different degrees or profession; according to the mentioned souvenir program: 


Judge Augusto M. Luciano                    
Atty. Silvestre M. Punzalan                            
Atty. Avelino D. Meneses                                
Fiscal Abelardo Dayrit
Atty. Irene David Jurado
Atty. Gregorio Gueco Pineda
Atty. Leonor Ines Luciano
Atty. Artemio S. Vega
Atty. Nicias O. Mendoza
Atty. Pedro G. Tayag
Atty. Benjamin D. Dizon
Atty. Primo G. Quizon
Atty. Felix Naguit
Atty. Jose P. Fausto
Atty. Jose Baltazar


Rev. Fr. Vicente Navarro
Rev. Fr. Jose T. Lacson
Rev. Fr. Florencio P. Tumang, Jr.


Guadalupe P. Capati


Dr. Andres J. Luciano
Dr. Servillano D. Ayuyao
Dr. Claro P. Feliciano
Dr. Ceferino Tayag
Dr. Miguel Dayrit


Major Pastor G. Magbag
Dr. Roberto T. Quizon
Dr. Gerardo N. Narciso
Dr. Salvador A. Gueco
Dr. Ricardo D. Reyes
Dr. Bienvenido D. Canlas
Dr. Narciso Datu
Dr. Teresita Dizon
Dr. Rosita Rivera Ramirez
Dr. Patrocinio Mendoza
Dr. Efren C. Naguit
Dr. Jose Quito

Mechanical-Electrical/Electrical Engineers:

Engr. Dominador Tumang
Engr. Ramon D. Feliciano
Engr. Onesimo Perez

Civil Engineers:

Engr. Alfredo M. David
Engr. Tomas Lopez
Engr. Prudencio Tuazon
Engr. Ruben T. Quizon
Engr. Ben Gueco Pineda
Engr. Porfirio Ayuyao, Jr.


Rafael L. Tayag
Porfirio D. Ayuyao, Sr.


Arch. Gloria Tuazon-Cunanan
Arch. Adelaido Quizon
Arch. Alfonso M. David

Certified Public Accountants:

Gil S. Feliciano
Raymundo O. Feliciano
Ricardo Dizon
Cayetano Perez
Rogelio Perez
Artemio B. Castillo
Uriel Meneses
Avelino Meneses
Hermenegilda Paras
Rodolfo Toledano
Rosario Quito


Major Gregorio Lugtu
Lt. Col. Hospicio Tuazon
Lt. Rudy Yabut
Lt. Angel Feliciano


Dr. Claro D. Ayuyao
Dr. Ignacio P. Morales
Dr. Gregorio Liwanag
Dr. Horacio D. Luciano
Dr. Enrique G. Tumang
Dr. Emeterio Peña


Rosenda Fortea Meneses
Maria Elvira L. Luciano
P. Pineda-Laxamana
Ines Cruz Naguit
Potenciana T. Cruz
Rita C. Gueco
Rosa P. Tumang
Carolina Gaña
Fidela Mendoza
Gervasio Liwanag
Aurelio Cruz
Juan Baluyut
Lourdes Ayuyao
Flora Tuazon

Industrial/Sugar Chemists:

Bettina D. Feliciano
Josefina Baron
Gregorio L. Tumang
Genaro Layug

Photo Credit:

Angeles University Foundation;
Institute of Kapampangan Studies


Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang, 1954


Magalang was one of the major agricultural towns in Pampanga. The economic life of the Magaleños was primarily centered on agriculture. Rice, sugarcane and tobacco as one of the leading products of the town. The peasants are the one of the largest labor groups of Magalang; ranging from the Spanish period until the early Japanese period. Extensive abuses committed by the landlords to their peasants, provoked the peasantry to adopt new ideologies to check the grave abuses of their landlords, to promote their rights and to attain decent living conditions. Their landlords becomes "sources of their food and loans in the event of an emergency or failed crop". Sometimes, their landlords imposed high interests to the loans of their peasants or casamacs, and they will become burdened to their debts. Their debts subsequently pass to their own children until they pay debts to their landlords. Some of the testamentos of the landlords revealed the total debts incurred by their casamacs. The testament of Don Aniceto S. Lacson in 1888 revealed that his thirteen casamacs owed him one thousand eighty nine pesos; while the fourteen casamacs of Don Doroteo S. Lacson owed him six hundred pesos; and the twelve casamacs of Don Faustino P, Tuazon owed him one hundred eighty pesos. 

The poor conditions of the casamacs led to their discontent, and they will resort to mass walkouts and rallies organized by the local peasant groups. In 1934, the Magalang chapter of Aguman ding Maldang Talapagobra founded by Pedro Abad Santos, was established in barrio San Antonio. Eusebio Aquino was appointed as leader of Magalang chapter of AMT. Many of the peasantry joined this group to voiced out their grievances against their landlords. And also, to promote their protection and enjoy their rights. In 1937 and 1940 elections, AMT fielded candidates and Eusebio Aquino was fielded for mayoral seat. He was defeated by the chief of police, Jose M. Navarro. However, a Magaleño gained the mayoralty seat in the socialist nerve of Pampanga; a son of landlord, Vivencio Baron Cuyugan was proclaimed as the first socialist mayor of San Fernando and also first in the Philippines. 

Peasants in Magalang staged mass walkouts and strikes in 1930s. A petition letter signed by Mayor Jose M. Navarro together with one hundred thirty eight prominent personalities in Magalang addressed to the Archbishop of Manila in 1938, to established a socio-religious group, Accion Catolica. In their petition, they stipulated that "the border town of Magalang, it was infested by the communists, socialists and even Sakdalistas". They added that "in the milling month of August, 1937, they staged a general strike and paralyzed the industry". In the year also, eighty casamacs of Don Eustaquio F. Dizon in sitio Mitla, staged a strike. They demanded that the wages of the workers plowing with landlord's carabaos increased from fifty centavos to one peso. Those workers who using their own carabaos were asking to increase their wages from sixty five centavos up to one peso and forty centavos. Aside from strikes, peasants also burned some of sugarcane fields in Magalang. In 1939, a strike was staged again by the peasants, resulting of killing of a migrant worker. In the same year also, sugarcane fields were also burned down. In 1940, a similar strike was also staged by the peasants. 

To counter the spread of communist and socialist ideologies in Magalang, a socio-religious group, Accion Catolica was founded in 1938 by the parish priest, Fr. Sixto Manaloto with the help of prominent sugar planters of Magalang. They attempted to promote the teaching of catechism in public schools to counter the spread of ideas of communism and socialism. They also conducted literacy conferences those who cannot afford formal education. And also, an adult education was launched among illiterate adult learners.   

The peasant unrest continued become more active when the occupation of the Japanese started. And until the formal establishment of Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon, the peasants grew their perseverance to attain their goals to become free from fiefdom. With series of social and economic reforms imposed by the past administrations, their goals gradually attained, and some of them attained decent living conditions. Others they continued their struggle to attain of what the communism and socialism promised to them. 

Photo Credits:



Letter to the Archbishop of Manila dated January 28, 1938, Magalang, Pampanga, 169 signatories. Archdiocese of Manila Archives

Testamento de Don Aniceto S. Lacson, Magalang, Pampanga dated: March 16, 1888

Testamento de Don Doroteo S. Lacson, Magalang, Pampanga dated: December 28, 1885

Testamento de Don Faustino P. Tuazon, Magalang, Pampanga dated: December 9, 1889

Singsing: Bravehearts: Kapampangan Rebels, Radicals and Renegades who Changed Philippine History, Pampanga Burning, page 106.

Larkin, John A., Sugar and the Origins or Modern Philippine Society, (1993) University of California Press pages 222-223. 

Timberman, David G. A Changeless Land, Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics 


A Buffalo Soldier circa 1890

When the Americans successfully captured Magalang in November 5, 1899, there are different military units of United States Army stationed in Magalang. Their headquarters was located in the convent of San Bartolome Church. In 1900, the 25th Infantry composed of Black American units of US Army replaced the 17th Infantry. These units garnered their nickname as the Buffalo Soldiers. However, when they arrived in Magalang, they inflicted abuses on the natives, and one of these incidents caught the attention of the United States Senate is the Julius Arnold case. Julius Arnold is a military musician of Company M, 25th Infantry. He was assigned in Magalang in 1900. According to the book, Affairs in the Philippine Islands, on January 15, 1900, Arnold forced a married woman, Leonora Salas of Magalang to have sexual intercourse with him. Salas resisted Arnold on his rape attempt, and she was shot by Arnold using his service pistol. Salas died on the same day due to gunshot wound. Arnold was eventually arrested and he was "dishonorably discharged from the service of the United States, forfeiting all pay allowances due him, and to be confined at hard labor, at such penitentiary as the reviewing authority may direct, for the remainder of his natural life" by the court martial. When the hearing of his case was ongoing, he was temporarily jailed in the old Bilibid Prisons. On April 25, 1900, a final verdict of the case was promulgated, the court martial sentenced him to death, "and the court manifested undeserved leniency". He served his remaining jail terms in the old Bilibid prisons and later, he was executed. 

Photo Credits:

Buffalo soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_soldier: Retrieved: April 18, 2017


Affairs in the Philippine Islands, Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate, 1902, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. pages 2113-2114.     


Dakit Cordero during Maundy Thursday with Rev. Fr. Pedro N. Magtoto
 with the 12 apostolados circa April 18, 1957.

Magaleños are so very religious in different celebrations especially to the paschal mystery of Jesus Christ. During the observance of the Holy Week in Magalang, these are the unforgettable moments in pertaining to the sacred celebration of Jesus' suffering, death and resurrection:

PABASA- this is one of the most popular scenes that Magalang can offer during Holy Week. During my childhood days, the pabasa was officially started in Ash Wednesday and it will end on early morning of Maundy Thursday. Barrio or sitio chapels or the bisitas will be converted into puni is where the pabasa will be held. The elders and even the young ladies in each barrios and sitios were reading the pasyun by chanting. Nowadays, the church authorities imposed restrictions on pabasa to celebrate the paschal mystery on theological aspect. Thus, they reduced the annual pabasa days up to only three days, from Holy Monday until the dawn of Maundy Thursday. Before, one of the best examples of pabasas is the puni of my great-grandaunt, Eusebia Dayrit Cabrera (1910-1989) or fondly known as Apung Biang. When the Ash Wednesday was near, she will make a small makeshift puni on their house yard in sitio Mapaco in barrio San Francisco in which the pabasa will be held. She had the old pasyun book written by a certain Leoncio Layug; which the elders will be use in chanting the pasyun. During Spanish period, my great great grandfather, Eulalio Sarmiento Mamangun (1868-1900) of Apalit, who was employed as escribano (secretary) of tribunal (municipal hall) of Magalang that time; he is one of the known pasyun writers in Magalang due to his beautiful penmanship. 

MANDARAME or MAGSALIBATBAT- we couldn't forget these scenes in Magalang during Holy Week. This ritual is practiced mostly by men. A group of flagellants will gather in a remote place in their barrios to wound themselves by using blades and they will cover their faces by a cloth. After they wound themselves, they will further wound their lacerations by striking their back of their body by using burilyo. Others, they will carrying a heavy cross made of hard wood or banana planks. They will walk within the highways and they will make every stopovers in every puni to pray for their personal intentions and to repent their sins. The church authorities discouraged this ritual nowadays, however, many of some of our folks are still practicing this ritual especially to the present young generations.

DOMINGGU NING PALASPAS or DOMINGO DE RAMOS- this is the annual commemoration of triumphal entry of Jesus in the gates of Jerusalem during Palm Sunday. Magaleños will gather in a certain place to meet the parish priest who will acting as the Jesus Christ. Then, the priest will bless the palm leaves or palaspas until they will march into the main road until they will enter into the main doors of the church, with the choirs singing alleluia. The blessed palm leaves or palaspas which is believed that it will used to prevent Satan to enter our households.

DAKIT CORDERO- this ritual is held annually during Maundy Thursday. The parish priest together with the twelve apostles will get the cordero from the assigned caretakers. Then, the priest together with the apostles will conduct prayers and they will held a small banquet. The cordero will be carry to the church to offer to the mass of the Last Supper. During the mass, the priest will wash the feet of the apostles or so called pamanos bitis. Then, after the mass, a vigilia king santissimo will be held until the church doors will be close on 12 midnight.

VIERNES SANTO LAME- after the stations of the cross was held, a procession of original Viernes Santo images will be taken place on afternoon. The original image of Santo Entierro owned by Gueco family will be processioned together with the other images like of Mater Dolorosa (formerly owned by Luciano-Tecson family, but later, it was transferred to the care of the church) Veronica (originally owned by David family, but it was passed to Lacson family), and Maria Magdalena (owned by Gueco family). The processionals will be wearing white or black colored clothes and they walk barefoot.    

SALUBUNG- this is the commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus from the death. A procession will be held when the image of Mary, wearing a black cloth will be eventually meet the resurrected Christ in front of the church. Then, a young angel will remove the black cloth of Mary; signaling the sorrow and grief is eventually over. A joyous alleluia will be sing by the church choir.

Photo Credit:

Dakit Cordero provided by Dr. Ignacio P. Morales circa April 18, 1957.


Atanasia Pamintuan Lacson (seated, left), Rogelio Lacson Lacson (standing, center) and Emilio Baron Lacson (seated, right)

The Baron family are one of the leading landowning families in Magalang. Their vast landholdings are located in barrio Sta Maria, Sitio Cabayung Sarul in barrio San Ildefonso all in Magalang, and in the former town proper of Magalang in barrio San Bartolome in Concepcion, Tarlac. In my previous post, "Magalang According to Anuario del Comercio", it was mentioned that Barons are one of the leading rice and sugar planters of Magalang during Spanish period. The Barons traced their ancestry to the couple, Don Bruno Baron and Doña Maria Yutuc. The couple has five children; Silvestra, Guillermo, Faustina, Antonia and Juliana. 

Their firstborn, Silvestra remained unmarried while Guillermo married Marcelina David; and the couple had seven children; Mariano, Soledad, Lucas, Fausta, Virginia, Tiburcio, and Candido. Mariano, who owned Cabayung Sarul married Lucia Gueco Mercado. During the Huk insurgency in Magalang, he was ambushed and killed by alleged members of Huks. His siblings, Soledad married Mariano Bernarte, Lucas married Iluminada Dizon, Fausta married Alejandro Gervacio, Virginia married Alejandro Tañedo, Tiburcio married his first cousin, Felisa Baron Cuyugan and Candido married Teodora Punu Gueco. 

Atty. Jesus Mercado Baron, former Vice Mayor of Magalang

Faustina married Ruperto Castro Layug, and they had only son Felix. After Ruperto's death, she later married Timoteo Vasquez Lacson, son of Don Manuel Suarez Lacson. former gobernadorcillo (mayor) of Magalang in 1868 and Doña Magdalena Vasquez of Porac. And they had only son, Emilio whom he eventually married his aunt, Atanasia Pamintuan Lacson, youngest child of Don Pablo Suarez Lacson and Doña Martina Quizon Pamintuan! (Emilio's father, Timoteo and Emilio's wife, Atanasia are both first cousins and their both fathers are siblings). Apung Milyo and Apung Taning had a only child, Rogelio whom he died in 1949 due to appendicitis. 

Vivencio Baron Cuyugan

Antonia married Saturnino Pamintuan Cuyugan of San Fernando, and their children are; Regino, Felix, Arturo, Bernardo, Elenita, Vivencio married Felisa Amurao, Jose married Benita Gueco Tumang, Felisa married her first cousin, Tiburcio David Baron, and Segundino married Emerenciana Gueco. One of their famous children, Vivencio served as the first socialist mayor of San Fernando and first socialist mayor all over the Philippines. His tenure started from 1937 to 1942; and again in 1945. He obtained his law degree in the United States through his talent in boxing. He was the one of the founders of Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon or Hukbalahap, who fought the invading Japanese. He was relieved by the returning Americans because of his leadership in Hukbalahap. After World War II, he fought the rights of poor farmers and workers. He was later jailed and tortured together with his family in 1953 on charge that he was a communist. He died in 1971. 

The youngest children of Don Bruno and Doña Maria, Juliana married Sixto Magno but they had no children. One of the known descendant of the Barons is the former vice mayor of Magalang, Atty. Jesus Mercado Baron, son of landowner, Mariano David Baron and Lucia Gueco Mercado. 

Photo Credits:

Family of Emilio and Atanasia L. Vda. de Lacson courtesy of Lacson family

Atty. Jesus M. Baron: from the personal possession of the blogger 

Vivencio B. Cuyugan: Nat'l historical agency recognizes Pampanga's socialist mayor by Tonette Orejas, Philippine Daily Inquirer, newsinfo.inquirer.net: retrived: March 27, 2017

Published Source:

Nat'l historical agency recognizes Pampanga's socialist mayor by Tonette Orejas, Philippine Daily Inquirer, newsinfo,inquirer.net: retrived: March 27, 2017

Unpublished Sources: 

Baron Clan 090908 compiled by Mr. Gerardo P. Baron  



Magalang's main industry is agriculture. Since Spanish period, agriculture is one of the lucrative industries in the town. Aside from its economic importance, agriculture is one of source of food of Magaleños particularly rice. Aside from sugarcane and tobacco, rice is one of the important crops of Magalang and also of the whole Pampanga.  Thanks to the contribution of the agricultural experimental station La Granja Modelo de Luzon, (presently known as Pampanga State Agricultural University) and they collected rice samplings from different rice varieties from Magalang, in Pampanga and in neighboring provinces. Those rice samplings were exhibited in Exposicion Regional de Filipinas in 1895 held in Manila. 

According to Catalogo de Objetos Presentados en la Exposicion Regional de Filipinas, these are the different rice samplings presented by La Granja Modelo de Luzon

Twenty-one palay grains in different varieties: Binondoc, Ipanaplaya, Inalsa, Ipot-ibon, Sinampaya, Matabia, Dinalaga, Macan, Binanquero, Binantu, Sinantol, Binulacsac, Quiriquiri, Taguesa, Milagrosa, Dinalamulac, Inasinan, Binagutoc, Inines, Binacauan, and Tinumbaga

Thirty four samples with spikes in corresponding varieties: Caviteña, Dame, Mindoro, Baula, Mimis blanco, Quinalaturay, Tinicling, Quinastila, Pains, Mantica, Macaue, Gracia, Malaco, Bulilinsing, Masinang, Milagrosa, Municol, Lana, Matabia, Salabsab, Piniscal, Minayor, Pigit, Apucayre, Sabanilla, Sinanfabian, Sinutla, Alasan, Quinastaño, Malismalis, Tunas, Binacauan, Minatsupal, Tinumbaga colorado and Sinablayan. 

Forty five samples with spikes from province of Tarlac in corresponding varieties: Bamas, Malbuig, Matayusa, Terana, Mimis morado, Bulic, Bandera, Inurupil, Sisihin, Quinumpit, Sinumura, Quinamiling, Sinalance, Sucupan, Ducsum, Sinipit, Pugut, Inaumang, Batulinao, Principe, Calarahin, Sinampurin, Inaluman, Guinagracia, Ihermano, San Andres, Balasang, Sapandan, Cayasan, Binatu, Baxiguis, Bagutat, Sinagduy, Binanquero, Mimis colorado, Dinomero, Macan magempit, Dinalaga, Culauatechi, Inurtuc, Quinalasiao, Muncul, Tinumbaga, blanco, Caviteña and Pungul.

Six samples with spikes in different varieties: Malaca, Caviteña, Payus, Binatu, Quinastaño and Sinutla, cultivated in mentioned granja.

Photo Credit:

Rice Plants courtesy of International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)


Catalogo de los Objetos Presentados en la Exposicion Regional de Filipinas Inaugurada en Manila el dia 23 de Enero de 1895, Manila, (1896) Tipo Litografia de Chofre y Compania Escolta Numero de 33