37. EPISODES OF MAGALENO REVOLUTION



Every June 12 each year, the Philippines celebrates the one of the important dates in our Philippine history, the Independence Day. Our first president, Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence from Spain in his balcony in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898. However, it was only during the presidency of our own Kapampangan president Diosdado P. Macapagal moved the celebration from July 4 to June 12. Thus, many colorful celebrations were held throughout the Philippines, especially in the neighboring town of Angeles, whom it witnessed the first celebration of the Philippine independence in 1899. 

The town of Magalang is one of the historic places in Pampanga. Its contribution during the revolution is enormous, due to the valiant Magaleños who fought for the independence from Spain and its proximity to the historic places such as Camansi, located in Magalang side of Mt. Arayat. In line of commemoration of Philippine independence, these are the some important dates in Magalang in relation to the attaining independence:

September 8, 1896- a combined Filipino volunteers from Bulacan, and Nueva Ecija sucessfully crushed the group of revolutionaries in Magalang.

February 18, 1897- a plan was hatched in the house of Don Tomas Dizon (present site of Blessed Sacrament Chapel) to free Magalang from Spanish rule. The conspirators are Major Servillano Aquino, Lt. Lorenzo D. Camaya, Don Cayetano Rivera, Don Ladislao C. Dayrit and some local elite supporters such as Don Teopisto Ganzon, Don Daniel O. Lacson, Don Buenaventura Paras, Don Juan Feliciano and Don Paulino Gueco. 

August 29, 1897- a band of revolutionaries attacked Magalang, but it was repelled by the Spanish forces. Thirteen revolutionaries killed. 

November 27, 1897- the Spanish general, Ricardo Monet led two columns to capture the revolutionaries' base in Camansi. Despite of windy rainstorm, the two columns gained opposite edges of the plateau by ten o'clock in the morning. By eleven o'clock, the two columns encircled the revolutionaries led by General Francisco Macabulos; forced to abandon their first line of defense due to heavy resistance. The Spanish troops of Lt. Col. Jose Maria Olaguer Feliu lose 23 men; while those of Major Angel Fernandez lose 4 men and 19 injured. Aside from Macabulos, his wife Dorotea Pascual also holed up in Camansi; together with Magaleños, Candido Niceta, Carlos Guiao, and the Chinese general, Jose Ignacio Paua. 

November 28, 1897- the troops of Lt. Col. Olaguer Feliu resumed the battle to capture Camansi. They successfully captured the fort due to intense artillery bombing against the revolutionaries. The battled concluded with 93 revolutionaries dead, and numerous equipment with horses and carabaos were captured. However, General Macabulos and his subordinates especially Major Servillano Aquino escaped. 

May 8, 1898- to monitor the revolutionaries' movement in Mt. Arayat, an order was issued by General Ricardo Monet to construct blok haus located in barrio San Antonio. Heliograph towers was also constructed to send Morse code signals to other Spanish posts around Magalang. The surviving heliograph towers were still seen in barrios Sta Cruz and San Isidro, inside of Cariyana Monastery. These towers are recently declared as Important Cultural Properties by National Museum. 

June 26, 1898- the hostilities against Spaniards resumed. Magalang joined with the towns of Bacolor, Mexico, and Arayat and they swear their allegiance to Katipunan. On that day, the revolutionaries arrested the last Augustinian parish priest of Magalang, Fr. Pedro Diez Ubierna in Magalang church convent. He was brought to the town tribunal together with two Spaniards. It was reported that he was maltreated by the revolutionaries. 

December 18, 1898- some Spanish prisoners were taken to the Magalang church convent including the last Augustinian parish priest of San Fernando, Fr. Antonio Redondo. A fierce attack was conducted by the forces of Gen. Pedro Pedroche against the forces of Magaleño colonel Lorenzo D. Camaya in Magalang church convent. However, the attack was repelled. The Spanish prisoners were freed later in 1899 in orders of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Fr. Redondo died before the order was issued.   

Photo Credit:

www.onwar.com

Sources: 

Alcubierre, Casimiro, España en Filipinas, Los Ultimos Años Su De Dominacion en el Archipelago, El Imparcial, Manila, 1910 pages 52-55.

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2016.

Dizon Lino L., Alaya, Kapampangan Research Journal; Juan D. Nepomuceno Center of Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City, 2008. page 152.

Joaquin, Nick, Aquinos of Tarlac, Manila, Solar Publishing Corporation, 1986.

Rodriguez-Prada, Fr. Jose, Memorias de Un Prisionero Durante La Revolucion Filipina, Imprenta de la Viuda e Hija de Gomez Fuentenebero, 1901.

The Philippine Rebellion, The Utica Observer, August 30, 1897.

Three Significant Battles in Pampanga by: Marco D. Nepomuceno https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/alt.language.kapampangan/RwG5aML_fwc; Retrieved: June 10, 2017














36. THE LIMCOLIOCS OF MAGALANG

The family of Cecilia Limcolioc Rivera (seated at center)

The Limcoliocs of Magalang, Angeles and Cabangan, Zambales traced their ancestry to Chinese mestizo couple from Tambobong (presently known as Malabon); Don Narciso Limcolioc and Doña Rita Cayco. The couple had three children, Santiago, Arcadio and Antonia. The couple decided to migrate to sleepy but emerging town of Angeles; a favorite destination of Chinese traders aside from San Fernando and Guagua all in Pampanga. Their son, Arcadio briefly served as cabeza de barangay in Angeles and married two times; first to a local Angeleña, Dionisia Domingo and after Dionisia's death, he married Alejandra Dizon Dizon. While their daughter, Antonia married Teopisto Simpao Ganzon, a son of a Chinese mestizo from Sta. Rita. 

The children of Arcadio to his first wife, Dionisia are; Agustina and Tomasa. Arcadio's children to his second wife, Alejandra Dizon are, Exequel, Cecilia, Valentina, Daniel, Josefa, Isidro and Pioquinta. Arcadio's family later moved to Magalang after his term as cabeza de barangay in Angeles. Antonia's family followed her brother's move to Magalang. Arcadio's children eventually married to some prominent scions of Magalang, Cecilia married Benito Tamayo Rivera, brother of revolutionary and assemblyman Don Cayetano Rivera. After they married in Magalang, they moved and permanently settled in Cabangan, Zambales. Benito also served as the first municipal president of Cabangan during the dawn of American period. The couple had nine children, Ramon, Alfredo married Valeriana Abinales; Maria, Federico married Florencia Peregrino; Ricardo Atanacio married Marciana Bautista; Rosita, a famous doctor married Dr. Adolfo Ramirez; Emilio married Rosa Dagdag; Herminia, and Fidel married Aurora Amanda Flordeliza.

Dr. Rosita Rivera Ramirez

Dr. Rosita Rivera Ramirez is one of intelligent daughter of Benito and Cecilia. She obtained her elementary education in Cabangan Elementary School, graduated valedictorian. She also topped her class when he graduated valedictorian in Zambales Provincial Farm School. She was among the top ten students of 1930 medicine class of University of the Philippines. Even before her graduation from UP, she had started her lifetime commitment to serve sick and indigent. During school vacations, she returned to her hometown to offer medical services for free. During her apex of her medical career, she established Sta. Teresita General Hospital located in D. Tuazon, Quezon City. Her hospital offered free medical services to indigents together with the assistance from various non government organizations. The institution also established maternity charity branch in Bagong Bantay; a squatter's area in Manila. Its school of nursing and midwifery offered financial aid to qualified but deserving students. Dr. Ramirez participated in community programs such as employment, development, health education, and family planning clinics. She also raised funds to equip children's playgrounds and parks. Her leadership in building projects for the Philippine Medical Association, a vocational center for destitute children and numerous other civic programs. Due to her invaluable service, she was elected president of Philippine Medical Women's Association from 1959 to 1961; board of director of numerous medical organizations such as Philippine Medical Association, Philippine Obstetrical and Gynecological Society, Philippine Hospital Association and the Philippine Federation of Private Medical Practitioners. In 1965, she was awarded most outstanding physician of Quezon City by PMA, Ten Outstanding Woman of the Philippines by FIDA in 1975, She also received the prestigious Civic Assembly of Woman of the Philippines, Presidential Medal of Merit for Outstanding Community Service and the Council of Health Agencies of the Philippines, Meritorious Award for socio-civic service all in 1971 at Malacañan Palace. 

Daniel Limcolioc married Teresa Ganzon Felix of Angeles and they had two children; Galicano and Contancio married Leocadia Fiñones. Daniel later married Matilde Balintos of Cabangan, Zambales, and they had a daughter, Maria Concepcion married Filologo Flordeliza. 

Isidro Limcolioc married Maria Barretto of Cabangan, Zambales and they had ten children, Gregoria married Alejandro Dagdag; Ricardo married four times; first to Milagros Garcia, then to Bernice Unk, Regina Witkowski, and Sophia Sally Ozimkowski all are Amercans; Raymundo married Gladys Pearl Dutton; Lorenzo married Tomasa Labio and later to Angelina Entilla; Julia married Jose Meily; Soledad married Conrado Villamaria; Segundino, Ernesto, Rafael and Rosario Mauricia Salud married Alfonso Udan. 

Rev. Msgr. Vicente Limcolioc Navarro, Jr.
Valentina Limcolioc married Juan Cruz of Magalang and they had only child, Maria married Domingo Cunanan. Josefa Limcolioc married Vicente Navarro of Magalang and they had four children; Magdalena married Pedro Cortez; Rev. Msgr. Vicente Navarro, Jr., Jose married Carmen Razon and Gloria. 

Pioqunita Limcolioc married Prudencio Paras Tayag and they had six children, Maria, Rafael, a surveyor who settled in Nabua, Camarines Sur; Lt. Leon Tayag married Sofia Lacsamana Lazatin of Angeles; Salud married Sisenando David Lacson; Francisco married Eticancy Grindstaff; and Elena married Cornelio Manaloto. After Prudencio's death, Pioquinta married Juan David and they had two daughters; Romana married Dr. Ceferino B. Tayag and Filomena. The children of Salud and Sisenando are: Purificacion married Bienvenido Hizon of Mexico, Pampanga; Caridad married Nisemio David of Bulacan; Milagros married Francisco Pineda Tumang; Leonarda married Eloy Zablan Bangsil; Gloria married Wenceslao Escoto Tancungco; Juvenal married Belen Yabut; Modesto, Luis Honorio, Fortunato, Daniel, former mayor of Magalang (1968-1986) married Amelia Lising; and Adeliza. 

Lt. Leon Limcolioc Tayag
The children of Arcadio's sister, Antonia to Don Teopisto Ganzon, gobernadorcillo accidental (acting mayor) of Magalang in 1882, capitan municipal of Magalang in 1895-1896 and municipal president of Angeles during revolution are Francisco and Andres. Andres later married Brigida Aguilar Aquino of Concepcion, Tarlac. Brigida is the sister of Major General Servillano Aquino, grandfather of late senator, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. The children of Andres and Brigida are, Adela married Francisco Pamintuan; Sor Josefa, Paz, Rosa married Miguel Nadres; Filomina, Teopisto, an architect married Guadalupe Fores; Joaquina married Manuel Conrado Lacson Narciso; Salvador, Maria married Quirino Pingul; Rubina, Cristina married Nicanor Enriquez and Lourdes married Quirino Pineda. 

The present known generations of Limcoliocs are: former mayors of Magalang, Daniel T. Lacson, Sr. (1968-1986) and his son, Daniel "Joey" Lacson, Jr. (1988-1998); incumbent vice mayor of Magalang, Norman L. Lacson; another son of Daniel Sr., Odilon Lacson married Maria Lourdes M. Paras, the incumbent and first woman mayor of Magalang, businessman and owner of Ala Creme Bistro Cakeshop, Eric Bangsil and Kapampangan language expert and advocate; Michael Raymon "Mike" Pangilinan all from the family of Arcadio. From the family of Antonia, including former vice mayor of Angeles, Alberto G. Pamintuan and his son, Atty. Edgardo D. Pamintuan, incumbent mayor of Angeles City. Mayor Edgardo Pamintuan's son, Edgardo "Edu" Pamintuan, Jr. is also the incumbent city councilor of Angeles City, and renowned musician, Conrado Titus del Rosario. 

Photo Credits:

Family of Cecilia Limcolioc Rivera provided by Gilbert Dennis Rivera de la Cruz

Dr. Rosita Rivera Ramirez provided by Gilbert Dennis Rivera de la Cruz

Rev. Msgr. Vicente Limcolioc Navarro courtesy of Luciano family

Lt. Leon Limcolioc Tayag courtesy of Mike Pangilinan

Note: There are two original identical pictures of Lt. Leon L. Tayag. One is the possession of Mike Pangilinan and another one of the pictorial collection of Angeles University Foundation Institute of Kapampangan Studies; donated by the late Dr. Evangelina Hilario Lacson

Sources:

Baptisimal record of Francisco Ganzon dated December 5, 1869; Libro de Bautisimos 1862-1874 of Angeles church; familysearch.org; Retrieved: June 2, 2017. 

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 97 and 117.

Family of Arcadio Cayco Limcolioc and Alejandra Dizon; mifamilias.tribalpages.com retrieved June 9, 2017. As courtesy of Gilbert Dennis Rivera de la Cruz, administrator of mifamilias.tribalpages.com

Marriage record of Don Arcadio Limcolioc and Alejandra Dizon dated October 12, 1869; Libro de Matrimonios 1835-1876 of Angeles church; familysearch.org; Retrieved: June 1, 2017.






35. OLD ADVERTISEMENTS IN MAGALANG



Promoting products and services in Magalang is promoted through simple advertisements. The old ads are usually published in some local periodicals in Pampanga; and also in souvenir programs of the local government of Magalang. They served also as sponsors in various activities in the town. One of the example is an ad of Parent's Teachers Association of Magalang Elementary School (above); together with the officers in School Year 1954-1955. Other ads also promoting different educational institutions in Magalang. One of the example is the ad of the first private high school institution; the Magalang Institute (below). The ad of the school has a greeting for the celebration of "foundation day" of the town; despite the original founding date of the town is April 30, 1605. 
    

However, Magalang Institute since its founding year in 1946 by the late Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao, it proudly announced that the school garnered the second highest score in Pampanga and forty ninth among the schools in the Philippines. The school principal that time is Mrs. Rosa Naguit de la Paz; and school director, Dr. Claro D. Ayuyao. Magalang Institute is still operational today and it is one of the largest private high school institutions of Magalang. Dr. Nunilon G. Ayuyao, daughter of Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao is the present director of the school.


The ad of Students Vocational School (above), located in San Fernando was founded by Mr. Ciriaco C. Toledano, who hailed from barrio San Miguel, Magalang, Pampanga. The school offered short classes in typewriting, stenography and bookkeeping.

 

The retail trade in Magalang was dominated by Chinese immigrants. One of these retail stores was owned by Mr. Pablo Siy Hian (above), who ran a grocery store. Another one was owned by Mr. Alfonso Chan Gioc, fondly known as Dioca. He operated La Suerte Bakery and General Merchandise (below) who eventually known today as Chan Gioc Minimart. Dioca has two sons, Felix and Fernando. Felix established FCC Supermarket while Fernando inherited the operations of La Suerte. 


However, a prosperous Magaleño entrepreneur proudly announced on his ad that his business was "100% Filipino Capital". The Paras Bakery and Grocery Store (below) was owned by Mr. Emilio P. Paras, a former municipal councilor of Magalang. His business was still operational, but the only bakery remained in operation. The operation of the bakery was passed to his daughter, Carmelita Lacson Paras. 



A lone cooperative store was setup to sell goods in reasonable price. From dry and canned goods, glass wares, fancy items and even appliances were the products of Magalang Cooperative Store (below). This cooperative store was later folded up.


Luckily, the sleepy town has a photo studio who offered services to capture photographs in different occasions. Loleng's Art Studio (below) was the precursor of now defunct Pol Studio, a known photo studio in Magalang during 70s to 90s. operated by the late Mr. Apolonio "Pol" Cruz. 


If Pampanga had Pambusco, Magalang had a local bus company serving Magaleños going to Angeles. The Pacemaker Transportation (below) was owned by Mr. Jose P. Feliciano; fondly known as JP. His majestic mansion is located near the public market. After JP's death, Pacemaker was gradually ceased its operations. Later, a local bus line Thames, owned by the late Mr. Edmundo Tayag; rose to prominence as one of the leading bus company in Magalang serving Angeles-Magalang route. Today, few buses was still seen in Magalang; serving the commuters going to Angeles. 

 

Obviously, Magalang is an agricultural town. Rice and sugarcane is the main crops of the town. Some landowners devoted their lands in cultivation of rice; and they established rice mills to buy the rice produced by the fellow landowners and small farmers. Two rice mills is the largest in the town. The Esperanza Vda. de Baluyut rice mill (below) was located in barrio San Pedro II. The owner itself fondly known her as Maestrang Atsang was a retired school teacher of Magalang Elementary School. She passed the operations of the mill to her daughter, Filomena married to Jose P. Feliciano. Today, this old rice mill was already demolished.



Another one is the David-Feliciano rice mill (below) located in barrio San Nicolas I, across the old Pasudeco station. The rice mill is said one of the modern in that time, established by Pablo M. David. The operations of the mill was passed to his daughter, Maria F. David, fondly known her as Apung Kiting. The said rice mill was already demolished, and some ruins of this rice mill was still be seen.



Medicines are formulated by some of the pharmacists in Magalang. One of the known pharmacies in the town, is the pharmacy owned by the late Gerardo F. Feliciano. He was pharmacist in profession and also a landowner. Unfortunately, he was kidnapped and ambushed by the alleged Huks. His pharmacy, Farmacia La Magaleña (below, left) passed to his wife, Beatriz D. Vda, de Feliciano.



Another pharmacy named the patron saint of the town, San Bartolome Apostol. The pharmacy, Botica San Bartolome (above, right) was established by Mr. Cezar T. Zablan, a former medicine student. These two pharmacies ceased its operations.



Landlords dominated the economic and social life of the Magaleños. Aside from local elite clubs, such as El Circulo Magaleño and Mountainside club, an association was established to protect the interests of the landowners. The Magalang Planters Association Incorporated (above) was formed by prominent Magaleño landowners. In 1954, Mr. Jose P. Feliciano was the president of the organization.



Outside Magalang, there are some enterprises were setup by the Magaleños in different products and services offered. One of them is a small local periodical based in San Fernando. The local daily, Capampangan, Ing Pajayagan Yu (above) was setup by Mr. Salvador G. Tumang, who hailed from Magalang.



Another one is an insurance company based in Manila, owned by Mr. Angeles P. Mariano of San Pedro I, Magalang. His insurance business offered fire and marine insurance, bonds and casualty insurance, worksmen compensation, and they even offered loans and mortgages and motor cars. The A.P. Mariano and Company Incorporated (above) was located in Escolta, Manila.



Lastly, a two sisters hailed from barrio San Antonio, Magalang and they engaged in textile dealership in Manila. The sisters, Aurea Samson Perez (above, left) and Juanita Samson (above, right)  are daughters of Isaac David Lising, a grandson of Don Juan David, gobernadorcillo of Magalang in 1858. Don Juan David is a brother of Doña Silvina David, matriarch of prominent Luciano families.

Sources:

Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang, 1954.















34. LISTS OF PROFESSIONALS OF MAGALANG



Magaleños, are naturally intelligent, and mostly, from the elite class who obtained quality education. All of them pursued in different degrees, and they studied in best schools in Manila and United States. Some of these professionals preferred to practice their profession in Magalang, while others practiced their profession in Manila and other countries. In the old souvenir program of Magalang entitled, Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang published in 1954, there is a section dedicated to those "professionals of Magalang" however, not all of them are native born of Magalang. Some of the professionals are from other towns who married a Magaleña, while others they prefer to practice their profession in Magalang permanently. These are the lists of Magaleño professionals who are categorized in different degrees or profession; according to the mentioned souvenir program: 

Attorneys-At-Law/Lawyers:                  

Judge Augusto M. Luciano                    
Atty. Silvestre M. Punzalan                            
Atty. Avelino D. Meneses                                
Fiscal Abelardo Dayrit
Atty. Irene David Jurado
Atty. Gregorio Gueco Pineda
Atty. Leonor Ines Luciano
Atty. Artemio S. Vega
Atty. Nicias O. Mendoza
Atty. Pedro G. Tayag
Atty. Benjamin D. Dizon
Atty. Primo G. Quizon
Atty. Felix Naguit
Atty. Jose P. Fausto
Atty. Jose Baltazar

Priests:

Rev. Fr. Vicente Navarro
Rev. Fr. Jose T. Lacson
Rev. Fr. Florencio P. Tumang, Jr.

Midwife:

Guadalupe P. Capati

Medicos:

Dr. Andres J. Luciano
Dr. Servillano D. Ayuyao
Dr. Claro P. Feliciano
Dr. Ceferino Tayag
Dr. Miguel Dayrit

Physicians/Physicians-Surgeon:

Major Pastor G. Magbag
Dr. Roberto T. Quizon
Dr. Gerardo N. Narciso
Dr. Salvador A. Gueco
Dr. Ricardo D. Reyes
Dr. Bienvenido D. Canlas
Dr. Narciso Datu
Dr. Teresita Dizon
Dr. Rosita Rivera Ramirez
Dr. Patrocinio Mendoza
Dr. Efren C. Naguit
Dr. Jose Quito

Mechanical-Electrical/Electrical Engineers:

Engr. Dominador Tumang
Engr. Ramon D. Feliciano
Engr. Onesimo Perez

Civil Engineers:

Engr. Alfredo M. David
Engr. Tomas Lopez
Engr. Prudencio Tuazon
Engr. Ruben T. Quizon
Engr. Ben Gueco Pineda
Engr. Porfirio Ayuyao, Jr.

Surveyor:

Rafael L. Tayag
Porfirio D. Ayuyao, Sr.

Architects:

Arch. Gloria Tuazon-Cunanan
Arch. Adelaido Quizon
Arch. Alfonso M. David

Certified Public Accountants:

Gil S. Feliciano
Raymundo O. Feliciano
Ricardo Dizon
Cayetano Perez
Rogelio Perez
Artemio B. Castillo
Uriel Meneses
Avelino Meneses
Hermenegilda Paras
Rodolfo Toledano
Rosario Quito

Military:

Major Gregorio Lugtu
Lt. Col. Hospicio Tuazon
Lt. Rudy Yabut
Lt. Angel Feliciano

Dentists:

Dr. Claro D. Ayuyao
Dr. Ignacio P. Morales
Dr. Gregorio Liwanag
Dr. Horacio D. Luciano
Dr. Enrique G. Tumang
Dr. Emeterio Peña

Pharmacists:

Rosenda Fortea Meneses
Maria Elvira L. Luciano
P. Pineda-Laxamana
Ines Cruz Naguit
Potenciana T. Cruz
Rita C. Gueco
Rosa P. Tumang
Carolina Gaña
Fidela Mendoza
Gervasio Liwanag
Aurelio Cruz
Juan Baluyut
Lourdes Ayuyao
Flora Tuazon

Industrial/Sugar Chemists:

Bettina D. Feliciano
Josefina Baron
Gregorio L. Tumang
Genaro Layug

Photo Credit:

Angeles University Foundation;
Institute of Kapampangan Studies

Sources:

Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang, 1954






33. THE PEASANT STRIKES IN MAGALANG



Magalang was one of the major agricultural towns in Pampanga. The economic life of the Magaleños was primarily centered on agriculture. Rice, sugarcane and tobacco as one of the leading products of the town. The peasants are the one of the largest labor groups of Magalang; ranging from the Spanish period until the early Japanese period. Extensive abuses committed by the landlords to their peasants, provoked the peasantry to adopt new ideologies to check the grave abuses of their landlords, to promote their rights and to attain decent living conditions. Their landlords becomes "sources of their food and loans in the event of an emergency or failed crop". Sometimes, their landlords imposed high interests to the loans of their peasants or casamacs, and they will become burdened to their debts. Their debts subsequently pass to their own children until they pay debts to their landlords. Some of the testamentos of the landlords revealed the total debts incurred by their casamacs. The testament of Don Aniceto S. Lacson in 1888 revealed that his thirteen casamacs owed him one thousand eighty nine pesos; while the fourteen casamacs of Don Doroteo S. Lacson owed him six hundred pesos; and the twelve casamacs of Don Faustino P, Tuazon owed him one hundred eighty pesos. 

The poor conditions of the casamacs led to their discontent, and they will resort to mass walkouts and rallies organized by the local peasant groups. In 1934, the Magalang chapter of Aguman ding Maldang Talapagobra founded by Pedro Abad Santos, was established in barrio San Antonio. Eusebio Aquino was appointed as leader of Magalang chapter of AMT. Many of the peasantry joined this group to voiced out their grievances against their landlords. And also, to promote their protection and enjoy their rights. In 1937 and 1940 elections, AMT fielded candidates and Eusebio Aquino was fielded for mayoral seat. He was defeated by the chief of police, Jose M. Navarro. However, a Magaleño gained the mayoralty seat in the socialist nerve of Pampanga; a son of landlord, Vivencio Baron Cuyugan was proclaimed as the first socialist mayor of San Fernando and also first in the Philippines. 

Peasants in Magalang staged mass walkouts and strikes in 1930s. A petition letter signed by Mayor Jose M. Navarro together with one hundred thirty eight prominent personalities in Magalang addressed to the Archbishop of Manila in 1938, to established a socio-religious group, Accion Catolica. In their petition, they stipulated that "the border town of Magalang, it was infested by the communists, socialists and even Sakdalistas". They added that "in the milling month of August, 1937, they staged a general strike and paralyzed the industry". In the year also, eighty casamacs of Don Eustaquio F. Dizon in sitio Mitla, staged a strike. They demanded that the wages of the workers plowing with landlord's carabaos increased from fifty centavos to one peso. Those workers who using their own carabaos were asking to increase their wages from sixty five centavos up to one peso and forty centavos. Aside from strikes, peasants also burned some of sugarcane fields in Magalang. In 1939, a strike was staged again by the peasants, resulting of killing of a migrant worker. In the same year also, sugarcane fields were also burned down. In 1940, a similar strike was also staged by the peasants. 

To counter the spread of communist and socialist ideologies in Magalang, a socio-religious group, Accion Catolica was founded in 1938 by the parish priest, Fr. Sixto Manaloto with the help of prominent sugar planters of Magalang. They attempted to promote the teaching of catechism in public schools to counter the spread of ideas of communism and socialism. They also conducted literacy conferences those who cannot afford formal education. And also, an adult education was launched among illiterate adult learners.   

The peasant unrest continued become more active when the occupation of the Japanese started. And until the formal establishment of Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon, the peasants grew their perseverance to attain their goals to become free from fiefdom. With series of social and economic reforms imposed by the past administrations, their goals gradually attained, and some of them attained decent living conditions. Others they continued their struggle to attain of what the communism and socialism promised to them. 

Photo Credits:

chocolateclass.files.wordpress.com

Sources:

Letter to the Archbishop of Manila dated January 28, 1938, Magalang, Pampanga, 169 signatories. Archdiocese of Manila Archives

Testamento de Don Aniceto S. Lacson, Magalang, Pampanga dated: March 16, 1888

Testamento de Don Doroteo S. Lacson, Magalang, Pampanga dated: December 28, 1885

Testamento de Don Faustino P. Tuazon, Magalang, Pampanga dated: December 9, 1889

Singsing: Bravehearts: Kapampangan Rebels, Radicals and Renegades who Changed Philippine History, Pampanga Burning, page 106.

Larkin, John A., Sugar and the Origins or Modern Philippine Society, (1993) University of California Press pages 222-223. 

Timberman, David G. A Changeless Land, Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics 

32. THE JULIUS ARNOLD CASE

A Buffalo Soldier circa 1890

When the Americans successfully captured Magalang in November 5, 1899, there are different military units of United States Army stationed in Magalang. Their headquarters was located in the convent of San Bartolome Church. In 1900, the 25th Infantry composed of Black American units of US Army replaced the 17th Infantry. These units garnered their nickname as the Buffalo Soldiers. However, when they arrived in Magalang, they inflicted abuses on the natives, and one of these incidents caught the attention of the United States Senate is the Julius Arnold case. Julius Arnold is a military musician of Company M, 25th Infantry. He was assigned in Magalang in 1900. According to the book, Affairs in the Philippine Islands, on January 15, 1900, Arnold forced a married woman, Leonora Salas of Magalang to have sexual intercourse with him. Salas resisted Arnold on his rape attempt, and she was shot by Arnold using his service pistol. Salas died on the same day due to gunshot wound. Arnold was eventually arrested and he was "dishonorably discharged from the service of the United States, forfeiting all pay allowances due him, and to be confined at hard labor, at such penitentiary as the reviewing authority may direct, for the remainder of his natural life" by the court martial. When the hearing of his case was ongoing, he was temporarily jailed in the old Bilibid Prisons. On April 25, 1900, a final verdict of the case was promulgated, the court martial sentenced him to death, "and the court manifested undeserved leniency". He served his remaining jail terms in the old Bilibid prisons and later, he was executed. 

Photo Credits:

Buffalo soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_soldier: Retrieved: April 18, 2017

Source:

Affairs in the Philippine Islands, Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate, 1902, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. pages 2113-2114.     

31. ORIGINAL HOLY WEEK MOMENTS IN MAGALANG

Dakit Cordero during Maundy Thursday with Rev. Fr. Pedro N. Magtoto
 with the 12 apostolados circa April 18, 1957.



Magaleños are so very religious in different celebrations especially to the paschal mystery of Jesus Christ. During the observance of the Holy Week in Magalang, these are the unforgettable moments in pertaining to the sacred celebration of Jesus' suffering, death and resurrection:

PABASA- this is one of the most popular scenes that Magalang can offer during Holy Week. During my childhood days, the pabasa was officially started in Ash Wednesday and it will end on early morning of Maundy Thursday. Barrio or sitio chapels or the bisitas will be converted into puni is where the pabasa will be held. The elders and even the young ladies in each barrios and sitios were reading the pasyun by chanting. Nowadays, the church authorities imposed restrictions on pabasa to celebrate the paschal mystery on theological aspect. Thus, they reduced the annual pabasa days up to only three days, from Holy Monday until the dawn of Maundy Thursday. Before, one of the best examples of pabasas is the puni of my great-grandaunt, Eusebia Dayrit Cabrera (1910-1989) or fondly known as Apung Biang. When the Ash Wednesday was near, she will make a small makeshift puni on their house yard in sitio Mapaco in barrio San Francisco in which the pabasa will be held. She had the old pasyun book written by a certain Leoncio Layug; which the elders will be use in chanting the pasyun. During Spanish period, my great great grandfather, Eulalio Sarmiento Mamangun (1868-1900) of Apalit, who was employed as escribano (secretary) of tribunal (municipal hall) of Magalang that time; he is one of the known pasyun writers in Magalang due to his beautiful penmanship. 

MANDARAME or MAGSALIBATBAT- we couldn't forget these scenes in Magalang during Holy Week. This ritual is practiced mostly by men. A group of flagellants will gather in a remote place in their barrios to wound themselves by using blades and they will cover their faces by a cloth. After they wound themselves, they will further wound their lacerations by striking their back of their body by using burilyo. Others, they will carrying a heavy cross made of hard wood or banana planks. They will walk within the highways and they will make every stopovers in every puni to pray for their personal intentions and to repent their sins. The church authorities discouraged this ritual nowadays, however, many of some of our folks are still practicing this ritual especially to the present young generations.

DOMINGGU NING PALASPAS or DOMINGO DE RAMOS- this is the annual commemoration of triumphal entry of Jesus in the gates of Jerusalem during Palm Sunday. Magaleños will gather in a certain place to meet the parish priest who will acting as the Jesus Christ. Then, the priest will bless the palm leaves or palaspas until they will march into the main road until they will enter into the main doors of the church, with the choirs singing alleluia. The blessed palm leaves or palaspas which is believed that it will used to prevent Satan to enter our households.

DAKIT CORDERO- this ritual is held annually during Maundy Thursday. The parish priest together with the twelve apostles will get the cordero from the assigned caretakers. Then, the priest together with the apostles will conduct prayers and they will held a small banquet. The cordero will be carry to the church to offer to the mass of the Last Supper. During the mass, the priest will wash the feet of the apostles or so called pamanos bitis. Then, after the mass, a vigilia king santissimo will be held until the church doors will be close on 12 midnight.

VIERNES SANTO LAME- after the stations of the cross was held, a procession of original Viernes Santo images will be taken place on afternoon. The original image of Santo Entierro owned by Gueco family will be processioned together with the other images like of Mater Dolorosa (formerly owned by Luciano-Tecson family, but later, it was transferred to the care of the church) Veronica (originally owned by David family, but it was passed to Lacson family), and Maria Magdalena (owned by Gueco family). The processionals will be wearing white or black colored clothes and they walk barefoot.    

SALUBUNG- this is the commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus from the death. A procession will be held when the image of Mary, wearing a black cloth will be eventually meet the resurrected Christ in front of the church. Then, a young angel will remove the black cloth of Mary; signaling the sorrow and grief is eventually over. A joyous alleluia will be sing by the church choir.

Photo Credit:

Dakit Cordero provided by Dr. Ignacio P. Morales circa April 18, 1957.