Magalang before and after was blessed with rich natural resources. That's why our ancestors utilized it; to become productive and will become part of one of the important industries of our town. In this post, i will identified some forgotten industries in Magalang, with their unique products that cannot match its quality. The reasons of the gradual loss, forgotten or extinction of these industries is due to continuous degradation of our natural resources, economic modernization and agricultural mechanization. Interestingly, a report in 1819 was written by the Spanish chief engineer, Yldefonso de Aragon entitled, Descripcion Geografica y Topografica de la Ysla de Luzon o Nueva Castilla tells about the land areas and demarcation of each towns in Luzon, particularly in Pampanga. It also included in the report are the existing industries in each towns. Pampanga that time has extended territory in which later become part of present provinces of Nueva Ecija and Tarlac. Aragon stated his report about Magalan, and according to him, aside from thriving agricultural sector particularly in rice and sugarcane, there is already existing liquor and weaving industries due to abundance of famous Buri palms (ebus in Kapampangan). Buri palms in Magalang are abundant, and they are found along the riverbanks of Rio Chico river. As stated by Aragon, these are the industries that are been flourished due to the abundance of Buri palms:

Wine Making- according to Tantingco, Magaleños took advantage of the buri palms lining the rivers by extracting the juice and turning into Tuba. Aragon also stated that aside from Tuba, other spirits like wine, a type of schnapp called aguardiente and another type of liquor known as mistela are also made from buri palm juice. When tuba was fermented, it will became a fragrant vinegar.

Weaving- due to wide and fan-like leaves of buri palms, Magaleños were able to weave mats and other handicrafts out from Buri palm leaves. Its leaves are also suitable for making roofs for houses and other buildings.

Aside from wine making and weaving, Magaleños were able to create other products out from buri palms. One of them is brown sugar made from the palms whom Aragon called Chancaca sugar. It also included in the list, was flour or starch processing; the trunk of the buri palm known as ubod was processed and made into flour called sago or also known as Yoro. Ubod was also an ingredient used in salads and other dishes.

The buri palm forests are located in the vast Pamabaran forest reservation. This reservation was located in the quad boundaries of San Antonio and Cabiao in Nueva Ecija, Concepcion, Tarlac and Magalang particularly in barrio Escaler. It was declared as timberland by Acting Governor General Eugene Allen Gilmore in 1927. In 1936, it was declared as protected area by President Manuel L. Quezon to protect and regulate the cutting of Buri palms and to regulate the floods along Rio Chico river. However, due to deforestation, buri palms were gradually reduce its population. When Mt. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, the remaining buri forests in Concepcion and Magalang sides were totally washed out by rampaging lahar flows.

Aside from industries and skills due to abundance of buri palms, there are other forgotten industries in Magalang listed below:

Dyeing- Aragon stated that añil (Spanish word for indigo) was used in Magalang to dye their clothes in special occasions.

Tobacco- this industry was one of the lucrative industries in Magalang and also in Pampanga. It was further flourished when the agricultural experiment station, La Granja Modelo de Luzon (present Pampanga State Agricultural University) conducted a vast experimentation of tobacco. It was earned recognition when it was exhibited in Exposicion General de Islas Filipinas held in Madrid, Spain where La Granja received the highest diploma honor.

Cart making- due to absence of navigable rivers in Magalang, carts (or gareta) are one of the modes of transportation of Magaleños at that time. According to Anuario del Comercio, two Magaleños are the leading constructor de carruajes or cart makers at that time, Victoriano Pingul and Vicente Naguit. During the American period, demands in carts increased due to agricultural progress. In that time, two Mageleños were known also in industry, Feliciano Samson and Eusebio Aquino. Later, Eusebio Aquino will become one of the founders of Hukbalahap and become second ranking officer of the movement. When the gradual agricultural modernization and mechanization took place, this industry gradually died out.

Saddle making- horses was one of the leading farm animals in Magalang during that time. And due to cross breeding success of horses of La Granja Modelo de Luzon, the population of horses increased. Anuario del Comercio also stated that there is talabartero or saddle maker from Magalang, Alfonso Felix.

Photo Credit: darwinonline.org.uk

Sources: Aragon, Yldefonso, Descripcion Geografica y Topografica de la Ysla de Luzon o Nueva Castilla, En La Imprenta de D. Manuel Menije por D. Anastacio Gonzaga, Manila, 1819 page 36.

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2013); National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Manila, 2016 pages 27, 34, 58 and 60.

Tantingco, Robby P., 7 Lost Kapampangan Skills: tl.ph.facebook.com/notes/robby-tantingco/7-lost-kapampangan-skills: retrieved: November 27, 2016.


Exposicion General de las Islas Filipinas was held in Madrid, Spain in 1887. The exposicion aims to showcase the different native products and masterpieces of Filipinos. Their products are exhibited in the zoological garden of Madrid. This exposicion where some famous Filipinos earned their recognition for their contributions in different fields. One of them is the Filipino painter, Juan Luna who awarded diploma honor for his masterpieces, Charing, Isla de Guideca and Muerte de Cleopratra. Another Filipino painter, Felix Resureccion Hidalgo earned medalla de oro for his masterpiece. La Barca de Aqueronte. And also in the list, is the Filipino author and labor leaderIsabelo de los Reyes, earned medalla de plata for his selection, Folklore Filipina. The exposicion earned praises from Spanish colonial government for its success however, there are some flaws that mirrored the abuses committed by the Spaniards to Filipinos. One of the examples is the exhibit of Igorots; whom provoked Dr, Jose P. Rizal to condemn the exhibit. He said, "let the Philippines forget that her sons have been treated like this; to be exhibited and ridiculed". Pampanga's, priced products are also exhibited in the exposicion. Their exhibits were far ranging, from agricultural products, woodcraft and other products. It also included in the exhibit are the skeletal remains and craniums of deceased Aetas from Porac and nearby province of Bataan. 

One of the most fascinating exhibit that i've seen in the catalogo of the exposicion is the agricultural products of the experiment station, La Granja Modelo de Luzon, an experiment station who is under the Spanish colonial government institution, La Comision Agronomica de Islas Filipinas. After the transfer of the experiment station from San Isidro, Nueva Ecija to the foothills of Mt. Arayat in Magalang in 1885, La Granja earned its early successes in the fields of agriculture in the said exposicion. The lists of its products exhibited in the exposicion are listed in Catalogo de la Exposicion General de las Islas Filipinas:

Añil (indigo), fruto del algonodero (cotton), dahon, palay, aceite de semilla de algodon, (cottonseed oil), aceite de semilla de coco (coconut oil), aceite de semilla de ajonjoli, (sesame oil), aceite de semilla de trementina (turpentine oil), palay, twenty eight samples, mongos, five samples, azucar (sugar), fourteen samples, algodon (cotton), four samples, semilla de algodon (cotton seeds), three samples, maiz (corn), two samples, tabaco en rama (raw tobacco leaves), eleven samples and two classes of tierras (soil). 

Tabaco (tobacco), from the province of Pampanga, with three samples in exhibit; classified with in exhibit numbers 1, 2 and 3. Maiz (corn) zea maiz harvested in Pampanga with different classes. Included also in the exhibit is the plano (plan) for the occupation and cultivation of land in La Granja. 

After the exposicion, La Granja Modelo de Luzon, earned diploma honor in the fields of agriculture. That award gave honor to the institution that become the catalyst of the agricultural development not in Magalang, but also in the whole Philippines. After many years, La Granja developed further its capabilities and expertise in the field of agriculture. This Spanish institution will become the present Pampanga State Agricultural University, one of the respected agricultural universities in the Philippines. 

Sources: Catalogo de la Exposicion General de las Islas Filipinas, Est. Tipografico de Ricardo Fe Madrid, España, 1887  pages 410, 421 and 478.

Photo Credit: http://www.bne.es/es/Micrositios/Exposiciones/Rizal/Exposicion


Consuelo Narciso Nunag (standing)
Josefa Paz Narciso del Rosario (sitting, left)
Mercedes Narciso Tayag (sitting, below right)

Narcisos are one of the prominent families in neighboring city of Angeles. Narcisos are famous in the fields of trade and commerce, health industry and education sector. But, did you know that Narcisos are also have Magaleño blood? Some Magaleño old timers are very familiar with Narcisos due to its connections to our town Magalang. Their family history traced back to the spouses, Luis Amirante Narciso and Maxima Suarez Lacson. Both of them are born in Angeles but when Maxima was still young, she was brought by her parents, Cristobal Lacson, who was a former gobernadorcillo of Angeles, and Agustina Suarez to their new land they cleared in Magalang. Maxima was second eldest among the children of Cristobal to his second wife, Agustina. His younger brothers, Manuel, Aniceto and Anacleto were later served as gobernardorcillos of Magalang. while Pablo will later serve as gobernadorcillo accidental (acting mayor) of Angeles and later, as juez de paz of Magalang. 

Luis and Maxima got married and they settled in barrio Bical in Mabalacat. Bical in that time, was one of the lands that Maxima's father, Cristobal cleared and become part of his landholdings. Both of them inherited their land after Cristobal died. They were become industrious until they achieved as one of the richest landowners of Bical and also of Mabalacat. Luis served gobernadorcillo of Mabalacat in several terms. The couple bore three children, Ludovico, Petra and Maria Magdalena. Ludovico initially served as cabeza de barangay when he was only twenty four years old and he rose his prominence as one of the prominent members of Mabalacat principalia. Later, he served as gobernadorcillo of Mabalacat and first municipal president of Mabalacat when Americans occupied the town. 

Ludovico married his relative, Gregoria Lacson of Angeles on November 23, 1880. Their wedding sponsors are Aniceto Lacson and Raymunda Lacson; Ludovico's mother Maxima younger siblings. Their marriage produced fourteen children; Pedro, a doctor married Camila de Liza, Felicidad married Marcos Lumanlan, Arsenio married his first cousin, Rosario Miranda and after her death, he married Ines Santos, Alfredo I, Juan Crisostomo married a beautiful pharmacist from Arayat, Esperanza Aliwalas, Jose Pedro married Josefa Mendiola, Ceferino married Africa Mesina, Edilberto married Maura Suarez, Consuelo married Eugenio Nunag, Josefa Paz Narciso-del Rosario, Angelina, Alfredo II, married Agustina Pabalan of Sta Ana, Manuel married Joaquina Ganzon and Mercedes married Dr. Jose Tayag. After Gregoria's death in 1912, Ludovico married Antonina Naguit and they bore four children, Leonila Hospicia, Luis, an architect married Josefa Fredeswinda Henson, Gerardo, a doctor married Amparo Brodett and Modesto married Remedios Vargas. Ludovico had children out of wedlock to Claudia Reyes; Felisa, married Agapito Marucut, Isaias and Galicano. 

Ludovico's sister Petra married Pedro Paras of Culubasa, Mexico and they settled in barrio Dapdap in Mabalacat. After the war, they settled permanently in Dau, also in Mabalacat. Their marriage produced seven children; Ramon married Rosa Cabigting, Alejandra married Dominador Quiazon, Federico Andres married Maria Reyes, Jose Gonzalo, Maria Trinidad, Alfredo and Mercedes, married her second cousin, Manuel Urquico. 

Ludovico's younger sister Maria Magdalena, married Felipe Miranda, a son of a small landowner in Bical. Their marriage produced five children, Maria Rosario married her first cousin, Arsenio Narciso, Ricardo Felipe, Maria Consuelo, Conrado Horacio married Amparo Gueco and Maria Patrocinio. 

According to some accounts, Narcisos tends to have connections with their relatives in Magalang, especially when they introduce their expertise music education and health services. One of the best examples is Purita Narciso, daughter of Arsenio Narciso and Rosario Miranda. Before the war, she lived in old Feliciano mansion in barrio San Pedro whom it was owned by her aunt, Maria Paras de Feliciano, a daughter of Raymunda Lacson, younger sister of Purita's grandmother Maxima. At that time, she taught piano lessons. She also conducting piano recitals to show the showcase of her talents in playing piano. When war broke out, almost all of Narcisos leaved Angeles to escape the atrocities of the Japanese, and they settled in Feliciano mansion. Some of their family members, together with other evacuees served the Magaleños by distributing medical and relief services to families affected by the war. The last Nariciso who lived in Magalang is Ludovico's younger son, Dr. Gerardo Narciso. He chose to practice his medical profession in Magalang in early 50s up to late 60s. At that time, he was one of the famous doctors in Magalang. 

At present, Narcisos are famous in the fields of health industry, trade and commerce, religion, music and other fields of profession. One of the best examples of Narcisos, is Fr. Tarcisio Maria H. Narciso, OSB, who is former abbot of Our Lady of Monserrat abbey of the Benedictine order, his sister Fredeswinda Narciso Bauzon, was the former high school principal of Holy Angel University, and another brother, Architect Teodoro Narciso, corporate lawyer Atty. Edilberto S. Narciso, Jr., Filonila Tayag Lansang, owner of Batis Azul and musician, Conrado Titus N. del Rosario.

Photo Credit: Consuelo Narciso-Nunag (standing), Josefa Paz Narciso-del Rosario, (sitting left) and Mercedes Narciso-Tayag (sitting below): Angeles University Foundation; Institute of Kapampangan Studies.   


Plaza de la Libertad circa 1963
Since we launched the Magalang Book and this blog, the aims of the book and the blog is not only to promote, inform and educate about the rich local history of Magalang, but also it will promote the historical corrections to our local history. Before we launched this two, we noticed that there are so many historical facts about the town are incorrect, forgotten or unwritten by past studies. One of this is the Magalang's foundation date. Here are some bits of explanation regarding the two foundation dates of Magalang:

APRIL 30, 1605- when Augustinians organized pueblos or towns in Pampanga, one of their mechanisms imposed during the pacification of Pampanga is the reduccion system. In this system, all of the fragmented barangays were abolished and their inhabitants were forced to live near to their missions or within the sounds of the church bells or so called bajo de la campana. Magalang was one of the products of reduccion system. When the Augustinian chapter accepted Magalang in April 30, 1605, it was formally organized as pueblo or town placing all the natives under the organized town of Magalo, (old name of Magalang) and its town proper was located in Macapsa. The town is under the administration of the Augustinians and it was placed under the patronage of San Bartolome Apostol. Fr. Gonzalo de Salazar was appointed first pastor. However, Magalang during that time has large vast territory. The former territories of Magalang which includes the present city of Mabalacat, towns of Concepcion, Capas and Bamban and city of Tarlac all located in Tarlac province. Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin noted that some parts of Zambales mountains and the province are also former territories of Magalang. Mabalacat including Bamban and Capas were seperated from Magalang in 1680; but in 1712, they were turned over to the Augustinian Recollects due to underdevelopment. In 1686, Magalang's territory was reduced again when Tarlac was seperated from Magalang. Magalang was transferred to San Bartolome in 1734 due to natural calamities and series of revolts. Its territory was composed of the present towns of Concepcion and Magalang. In 1858, a Royal Decree was promulgated to establish the town of Concepcion, covering the barrios in the northern bank of Parua River. However, in that same year when a large flood struck the town. It was only in 1863 when Concepcion was formally created, and Magalang once again transferred its town proper from San Bartolome to San Pedro Talimunduc. Thus its former town proper, San Bartolome earned its place name as balen melacuan or forsaken town

DECEMBER 13, 1863- when the large flood struck Magalang once again, a disagreement rose on the members of the principalia.  The disagreement was ended when Pampanga alcalde mayor Ramon Barroeta issued a decree on December 13, 1863, it formally transferred the town from barrio San Bartolome to San Pedro Talimunduc and laid the foundations of the new town of Concepcion. When Concepcion was created, it is still depending on Magalang's political and religious affairs. That's why in that time, Fr. Ignacio Manzanares, OSA who facilitated the town's transfer was the parish priest of Magalang, and also of Concepcion. Pablo M. Luciano served as gobernadorcillo of Magalang that time, but his authority was still extended to Concepcion. Until 1864, when Concepcion was politically separated; and in 1866, when Concepcion established its own parish. The concept of celebrating this date was only conceived in 1954. The basis of this celebration concept is the Historical and Cultural Life of the Municipality of Magalang in the Province of Pampanga, written in 1954This write up is an example of Historical Data Papers or HDPs, written by the public school teachers to write the local history of their towns and their barrios way back 1950s. However, due to lack of primary and secondary sources especially archival resources, they only depended on interviews and oral accounts of different prominent persons in Magalang without credible evidences and sources. HDPs are also used as political tool to give emphasis on local personalities or even their families who may appear important but actually are not. HDPs are not regarded by most historians due to lack of documentation and credible sources. The copies of Magalang HDP is still intact in the National Library of the Philippines and even in the school library of Magalang Elementary School. Without historical verification, research or study regarding this date, "Magalang Day" or "Aldo ning Magalang" was formally commemorated. Former president Ramon Magsaysay eventually signed Proclaimation No. 98 series 1954 declaring December 13 as special public holiday in Magalang. It was signed in December 4, 1954. By then, Magalang started to celebrate its "Foundation" day. This date of commemoration was further strengthened when former president Ferdinand E. Marcos signed Proclaimation No. 1805 series 1978 on November 23, 1978 declaring December 13 of every year as "Foundation day" of Magalang. The basis of this proclaimation was based again on HDPs; and the first sentence of this proclaimation stated that town of Magalang, Pampanga was "founded" on December 13, 1863. Until present, this proclaimation was still in effect; thus the town still celebrating this date as their "foundation" day.  It is only an act of Congress or another presidential proclamation issuance will supersede the existing proclamation, if they will wish to change the existing "foundation" date. 

We must remember that Magalang is one of the oldest towns in Pampanga. After the transfer of the town in December 13, 1863, it continued its existence as the original town of Magalang when it was established since April 30, 1605. It took only changes in regards of territory and jurisdiction. But, it didn't changed its political, economic and religious status which possessed the town since it was established in April 30, 1605. Commemoration of foundations of the towns is very important to every towns in Pampanga to showcase their historical and cultural treasures but, the date of the commemoration must be historically correct and must be follow religiously.

It is up now to the Magaleños to judge of what is the exact date will be commemorated; and to be folllow as the true foundation date of Magalang.    

Photo Credit: Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang Ning Magalang, 1963


Apilado, Digna B. 1999, History from the People; Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan, Proceedings of the 1998 Centennial Regional Seminar-Workshop Series on Oral and Local History; Volume 16, National Historical Institute and Philippine National Historical Society, Paperchase Printing Services, Quezon City, page 104.

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L., and Dizon Lino L.,2016, The Magalang Book; The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015); National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Manila, page 23.

Dizon Lino L., 2008, Alaya, Kapampangan Research Journal; Juan D. Nepomuceno Center of Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City, page 28.

San Agustin, Fr. Gaspar, Conquistas de la Islas Filipinas 1565-1615, San Agustin Museum, Intramuros, Manila pages 1051, 1099-1100. 


Magalang was one of the towns in Pampanga become strongholds of Filipino revolutionaries. One particular reason is the proximity to Mt. Arayat; whom the revolutionaries built their headquarters there especially in historic Camansi. Since the Philippine-American war broke, Americans captured Luzon inch by inch until they reached Pampanga. When Americans captured Angeles and San Fernando, their eyes are pointed out in Magalang. The Kapampangan general, Major General Servillano Aquino set up his defenses in Magalang against the invading Americans. But on November 5, 1899, Americans captured Magalang; General Aquino escaped from his looming capture; later, he ran to Tarlac. After the fall of Tarlac, General Aquino together with his remaining forces, they hid once again in their former fortifications in Camansi. General Aquino didn't give up his resistance despite his comrades are already surrendered to Americans. His fate was happened on May 18, 1901, Americans marched into Camansi and they captured General Aquino. Later, he was sentenced to "hard labor for the remainder of his life", however, he was granted pardon in 1904.

Forty two years after the capture of Magalang by the Americans, the Japanese successfully captured Magalang in January 1, 1942. Then, the guerrilla movement, Hukbalahap was also founded in the same year, and they set up once again their major bases of operations in Camansi in Mt. Arayat. After the fall of Bataan, the combined Filipino-American forces suffered brutalities done by the Japanese. Many of them died in starvation, thirst, sickness and harsh maltreatment. Luckily, some of the American officers escaped and they formed guerrilla units to continue the resistance against the Japanese. Some of them found their sanctuary in Magalang. Incidentally, the second ranking Hukbalahap officer based on Camansi  is also an Aquino. The Magaleño socialist, Eusebio Aquino, or fondly known him as Tatang Bio, Apung Bio or Commander Bio, took care of American officers who sought his sanctuary to escaped from advancing Japanese units. Eusebio Aquino is an old blacksmith who has shop in barrio San Nicolas beside the Pasudeco station. Tatang Bio is also nephew of Major General Servillano Aquino whom he stayed in Camansi before he was captured by the Americans.  Because of his squadrons spread across Magalang, Japanese were unable to capture the whole town itself. Hukbalahaps secured Magalang before the Americans arrived in the town; until it was fully liberated in January 27, 1945.

In this article, here are some famous American military officers who reshaped and give color to the revolutionary scene of Magalang.

Major General Arthur MacArthur- this high ranking officer fondly called him as the "Boy Colonel". After he captured San Fernando, he ordered his large force composed of 4th Cavalry, to march to Magalang from its base in Calulut. He fought fierce battle in barrio San Jose, resulting heavy casualties among Filipino troops. He commanded the major battle against Filipino forces encamped in San Bartolome Church, resulting considerable loss to Filipino force. He also ordered the looting and burning of houses around the town proper. He fought the last position of General Aquino in Masapinit and he successfully captured it. After the capture of Magalang, he proceed to nearby town of Mabalacat. After his military successes around Luzon, he was appointed as the last Military Governor of the Philippines. His military supremacy was inherited by his famous son, General Douglas MacArthur, who liberated the Philippines in 1945.

Colonel Jacob Hurd Smith- this celebrated American officer also known as the "Howling Jake". When Angeles was captured, he ordered by his commander, General MacArthur to marched out from Angeles with his large force of 17th Infantry, 1st Artillery and Signal Corps to joined him in barrio San Jose to capture Magalang. He fought fierce battles in barrios San Francisco and San Pedro resulting of large losses to Filipino forces. He also participated in the capture of San Bartolome Church in November 5, 1899. After his stint in Magalang, he was appointed military governor of Pangasinan, Tarlac and Zambales. His vague popularity rose when he ordered his forces to kill and burn the town of Balangiga in Samar. This attack famously known as the Balangiga Massacre. He found guilty by the court martial in relation of the massacre and he was sentenced to be "admonished by the reviewing authority".

Brigadier General Frederick Dent Grant- this American officer was the son of the United States Civil War hero, and former President of the United States, Ulysses Grant. He was assigned in Magalang to led an expedition in Mt. Arayat to fought the remaining forces of General Aquino in December 26- 31, 1900. He implicated heavy losses upon the Filipino forces and they captured valuable documents. After successive attempts to capture General Aquino, he successfully captured him on May 18, 1901, making General Aquino as one of the remaining Filipino officers who fought against the Americans; after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901.

Julius Arnold- a black American military musician who belonged to all black American 25th Infantry, also known as the Buffalo soldiers. On January 15, 1900; Julius Arnold attempted to rape a Magaleña, Leonora Salas. But Salas resisted the rape attempt and Arnold shot her using his service pistol and she died. In 1902, he found guilty by court martial and he was sentenced to life imprisonment, dismissal from military service and his salaries and benefits were forfeited.

Russell W. Volckmann- an American captain assigned in 11th Infantry together with Major Helmert Duisterhof. His forces was composed of Igorot troops and set up defenses in barrio San Antonio in Magalang. They successfully inflicted heavy losses upon invading Japanese forces, but due to overstretched of war material, they forced to withdraw from Magalang in January 1, 1942 and the town itself fell on Japanese on the same day. He escaped from Japanese together with his friend, Captain Donald Blackburn and they found sanctuary in Camansi in Mt. Arayat. They welcomed by Eusebio Aquino, a Magaleño and second commanding officer of Hukbalahap. Commander Bio took care of them and he offered Volckmann to become military adviser of Hukbalahap; but Volckmann declined. After their brief stay, he and Blackburn reached Northern Luzon and they resumed the command of United States Army Forces in the Philippines- Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL) one of the largest guerrilla force in Northern Luzon. who helped the American forces to contain the Japanese forces in Northern Luzon led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. After their fierce resistance, Yamashita surrendered in September 2, 1945. After the war, he and another guerrilla leader, Wendell Fertig formulated the doctrine of the unconventional warfare of the new US Army Special Forces (Green Berets) whom later he was acknowledge one of the founders of US Army Special Forces.

Donald Blackburn- an American captain and friend of Capt. Russell W. Volckmann. They evaded Japanese capture and they went in Camansi in Mt. Arayat. He and Volckmann was welcomed by Eusebio Aquino and after they brief stay, they went to Northern Luzon to resume command of United States Army Forces in the Philippines- Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL). He was known for his exploits during the war; remained unknown in general public. After the war, he was appointed commander of Studies and Observation Group of the US Army based in Vietnam.

Source: Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L. The Magalang Book, The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015)

Photo Credit: http://www.riskplaywin.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/press-release.jpg


Don Pablo M. Luciano

Luciano family is one of the prominent families of Magalang. They are known for owning vast tracts of land in the town proper; which makes up to the present upscale subdivision of Marbea; they also owned vast tracts of land in barrio San Pablo stretching to barrio San Agustin. They have also large tracts of land in Balitucan in barrio San Ildefonso. Their popularity stretches from the political, religious and commerce and also to the fields of sports and showbiz industry. Lucianos traced their lineage back to the couple of Faustino David Luciano and Silvina Dizon David. Faustino was born in Arayat to Benedicto Luciano and Benedicta David. Silvina was born in Magalang in which the town proper was located in San Bartolome at that time. Her parents are Alejandro David, served gobernadorcillo of Magalang and Martina Dizon. Silvina has a brother, Juan who served as gobernadorcillo of Magalang in 1858 and he was the patriarch of the present Samson families of Magalang. Faustino and Silvina married in 1838 in Arayat; and their marriage produced four children; Pablo, Felipe, Anastacia and Natalia. Later, Faustino was appointed gobernardorcillo of Magalang in 1842.

In 1863, Magalang experienced a disastrous tragedy that Magaleños will never forget. Parua river was overflowed and engulfed the whole town proper. Some of the old residents' lives perished, properties destroyed, and everybody greatly affected. Old residents of San Bartolome disagreed about the transfer of the town proper. Faustino's son Pablo was appointed as gobernadorcillo of Magalang in that time; and the issue of transfer was never been settled. Aquino, Quiambao and Pineda families proposed the transfer of the town from San Bartolome to the northern barrio of Matondo, while the parish priest, Fr. Ignacio Manzanares, OSA proposed the transfer of the town to San Pedro Talimunduc in the foothills of Mt. Arayat; which cleared earlier by the residents from Angeles led by Cristobal Lacson. To solve the disagreement, Alcalde Mayor Ramon Barroeta issued an order on December 13, 1863 to transfer the town from San Bartolome to San Pedro Talimunduc. He also laid out the foundations of a new town bordering Parua river on the north, later it will become the new town of Concepcion. Fr. Ignacio Manzanares, OSA led the transfer together with Pablo and his family; with Suing, Cortes, Dizon and David families joined them. Fr. Manzanares successfully transferred the town proper with the old residents of San Pedro Talimunduc welcomed them.

Pablo served as gobernadorcillo of Magalang until 1864; the last gobernadocillo of the whole Magalang (together with Concepcion). He served once again as gobernadorcillo in 1881, but he resigned due to health reasons. He became the first juez de paz of Magalang in 1886. Pablo married Antonia Lazatin of Mabalacat and they bore five children; Eugenia, Andres, Jose, Ricardo and Pablo. Eugenia married Juan Feliciano; Andres, a doctor and served as assemblyman in Philippine Assembly in 1912 married three times, his first wife, Maria Luisa Luciano, his second wife is Beatriz Feliciano and third and last wife is Antonina Lising. Jose married Aurelia Magdañgal; Ricardo married two times, his first wife is Gregoria David of Angeles and his second wife was a certain woman from Pamintuan family; and Pablo married Rosalina Luciano.

Felipe was appointed as teniente mayor of Magalang in 1885. He first married Juana Dizon, but they childless. After Juana's death, Felipe married Luisa Yutuc; and their marriage bore four children; Antonio, Miguela, Ceferina and Maria Luisa. Antonio served as municipal president of Magalang in 1923, married three times, his first wife is Juana Trinidad, second wife is Rosa Dalusung and third and last wife, Nicolasa Quizon, a school teacher; Ceferina married Alfonso Manaloto and Maria Luisa married his first cousin, Dr. Andres J. Luciano; Miguela remained single for the rest of her life. After Luisa died, he married a certain woman from Cruz family and they bore only child, Rosalina, married to his first cousin, Pablo A. Luciano.

The famous present generation of the Lucianos are, Victor Jose I. Luciano, former president of Clark International Airport Authority, basketball player and coach, Ed Ocampo, and the veteran film actress, Liza Lorena and his son, actor Tonton Gutierrez.

Photo Credit: Pablo M. Luciano; Capagmasusian Qng Aldo Pangasilang ning Magalang, Diciembre 28-29, 1963


Since its establishment of Magalang in April 30, 1605; the primary industry of the town is agriculture. Magalang's agricultural lands is devoted to rice and sugarcane. A small plantation of tobacco is planted in the the experiment station; La Granja Modelo de Luzon (now the Pampanga State Agricultural University). After the recovery of the town since its transfer from San Bartolome to San Pedro Talimunduc in 1863, the agriculture sector becomes thriving and small industries was established. During that time, a Spanish magazine, Anuario del Comercio published the lists of prominent persons in fields of agriculture, commerce and industry, local and religious leaders and even professionals in every provinces in Spain, including in the Philippines. Anuario del Comercio's publication started in 1881 and ended in 1911. The magazine provided the interesting details about Magalang's prominent persons in different fields. Here is the partial lists of prominent Magaleños according to Anuario del Comercio:

In 1886 Anuario del Comercio, the Juez de Paz of Magalang isPablo M. Luciano, parish priest, Fr. Fernando Vasquez, OSA, student with a degree of Colegio de Segunda Enseñanza, Tomas Gamboa and Commerciantes (native and Spanish merchants): Vicente Blanco, Vicente Gonzalez, Basilio Moreno, Santiago Store and Carlos Vega. 

In 1893 Anuario del Comercio, the capitan municipal is Manuel C. Gueco, juez de paz, Teopisto S. Ganzon, fiscal, Inocencio Espanol, estafeta de correo (post master), Raymundo Feliciano, director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon, Enrique Rodriguez de Celis, parish priest, Fr. Toribio Fanjul, OSA, Instruccion Publica (teachers); Profesor Serapion Carreon and Profesora Candida Ordoñez, cosecheros de azucar y palay (prominent rice and sugar planters), Pablo M. David, Ladislao C. Dayrit, Tomas Dizon, Juan P. Feliciano, Teopisto S. Ganzon, Daniel O. Lacson, Antonio Y. Luciano, Pablo M. Luciano, and Cirilo Tiamzon. constructor de carruajes (cart makers), Victoriano Pingul, comerciantes, Enrique Baluyut Sr., Lorenzo Ruano and Carlos Vega, farmaceutico (pharmacist), Bernardo Duesphy and talabartero (horse saddle maker), Florentino Felix. 

In 1896 Anuario del Comercio, the capitan municipal is Paulino C. Gueco, juez de paz, Pablo S. Lacson, fiscal, Inocencio Espanol, director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon, Enrique Rodriguez de Celis, parish priest, Fr. Jose Rodriguez Prada, OSA, Instruccion Publica, Profesor Serapion Carreon and Profesora Paula Rodriguez, cosecheros de azucar y palay (prominent rice and sugar planters), Faustina Baron and his sister, Silvestra Baron, Pablo M. David, Ladislao C. Dayrit, Tomas Dizon, Raymundo Feliciano, Teopisto S. Ganzon, Agustina Gueco de Tumang and his siblings, Gregorio C. Gueco, Manuel C. Gueco Paulino C. Gueco, and Vicenta Gueco de Gantioqui; Aniceto S. Lacson, Daniel O. Lacson, Antonio Y. Luciano, Pablo M. Luciano and Cirilo Tiamzon; constructor de carruajes (cart makers), Vicente Naguit and Victoriano Pingul, comerciante, Enrique Baluyut Sr., farmaceutico (pharmacist), Bernardo Duesphy and talabartero (horse saddle maker), Alfonso Felix.

Anuario del Comercio proved that Magalang was the one of the emerging agricultural towns during Spanish period. Its emergence was halted when the revolution broke. When Americans came, Magalang entered its new phase of agricultural prosperity. 

Sources: Anuario del Comercio de la Industria años de 1886, 1893 y 1896

Photograph provided by the late Ariel H. Lacson (2013)


Lucila David Lacson

All we know that Lacsons are one of the powerful clans in the Philippines. They are famous owning large sugar plantations particularly in Iloilo, Negros Provinces and in Pampanga. The Lacsons are believed to be descended from a Chinese migrant in the name of Sung-Lak. His offspring are spread within Manila and surrounding provinces particularly in Pampanga. A certain man named Cristobal Lacson envisioned and dreamed to attain political and economic power in Angeles. He was born around 1799 to a small landowning class family in barrio Malino, San Fernando. He later migrated in nearby town of Angeles to find his luck. He married his first wife, Juliana Supan and they had eight children; Josefa, Hilaria, Bernabela, Dionisia, Pedro, Joaquin, Evaristo and Maria Juliana. He was appointed cabeza de barangay but unfortunately; his first wife died. He later married Agustina Suarez from Angeles and they had twelve children; Lorenzo, Maxima, Florentina, Manuel, Aniceto, Anacleto, Raymunda, Francisco, Pablo, Francisca, and Doroteo. After his children grew up, in 1840, he and his some partners explored thick forested areas located in the foothills of Mt. Arayat. Magalang's town proper that time was in barrio San Bartolome. Cristobal and his partners cleared the thick forest and they converted into a prosperous sugarcane fields. Cristobal later prospered and he was elected as gobernadorcillo of Angeles in 1843. After his brief stint as local chief executive in Angeles, he and his large family settled for good in their new lands which is still part of Arayat. And after the forced transfer of Magalang from San Bartolome to San Pedro Talimunduc in December 13, 1863, Cristobal welcomed the new residents. He donated his large landholdings to become the new town proper of Magalang where the San Bartolome Church stands today and the old cemetery (where the present day Acejo grocery located). He was the one of the Kapampangan donors who donated funds to establish the Colegio de Primaria y Latinidad founded by Don Felino Gil and Fr. Juan Zita in Bacolor, Pampanga (today as Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University) in 1864. Due to his old age, Cristobal died in Magalang and his landholdings located in barrios San Jose, San Francisco, San Pedro and San Antonio all in Magalang was inherited and divided among his children. All of his children to his second wife, Agustina were become new key players in the local government and commerce in Magalang and nearby towns. Three of his sons, Manuel, Aniceto and Anacleto were become gobernadorcillos of Magalang, Pablo served as gobernadorcillo accidental (acting mayor) of Angeles and juez de paz of Magalang, Francisco and Doroteo both served as cabezas de barangay. And even his sons in law; like Maxima's husband Luis Amirante Narciso served gobernadorcillo of Mabalacat in several terms and Raymunda's husband Buenaventura Paras, a native of Mexico, Pampanga served as presidente municipal of Magalang during revolution. Florentina married Domingo Cecilia Agustin, a Chinese mestizo merchant from Malabon and at the same time, he served as cabeza de barangay in Angeles. Cristobal's other grandchildren are also intermarried with powerful families in Magalang and Angeles; spun off a whole offspring of illustrious families such as Narcisos, Parases, Felicianos, Lazatins, Urquicos, etc. 

Today, Lacsons are very popular in their field in local politics, business, culture and religion in Magalang. One good example is Daniel T. Lacson, a descendant of Anacleto served as mayor of Magalang from 1968-1986; and his two sons, Daniel Jr. or fondly known as Joey served as mayor of Magalang from 1988-1998 and Norman who presently serving as vice mayor of Magalang. His daughter in law, Maria Lourdes Paras Lacson was recently elected as first woman mayor of Magalang. Another descendant of Anacleto, Atty. Serafin D. Lacson married the famous Kapampangan writer and academician, Evangelina Hilario, a daughter of revolutionary, Zoilo Hilario. Former Representative Carmelo "Tarzan" Lazatin and his son, Representative Jon Lazatin are both descended from Raymunda's daughter Maria Paras de Feliciano. My great-grandfather, Ricardo Lacson, grandson of Pablo served as one of the longest serving councilors of Magalang in 50s and 60s. His half-brother, Rev. Msgr. Jose T. Lacson served as one of the respected priest in Diocese of Cabanatuan. Another descendant of Pablo, George V. Samson, president of World Medical Relief. A descendant of Maxima, the religious Fr. Tarcisio Maria H. Narciso, OSB, who formerly served as abbot of Abbey of Our Lady of Montserrat of the Benedictine order. Another Lacson in the name of Pacifico Lacson, who also served as councilor of Magalang in 1968; he is a descendant of Manuel. 

Photo Credit: Lucila David Lacson; Dr. Evangelina Lacson collections; Angeles University Foundation, Institute of Kapampangan Studies


Año de 1886 bell
Siendo Cura Parroco de Magalang bell
c. 1887
Virgen de la Correa bell c. 1889
San Bartolome bell c. 1890

The church bells has so many contributions not only in terms in religion, but also in the different lives touched by its bell tones to the Magaleños. In my childhood days, we tend to go up in the belfry to see those large four bells; in addition of beautiful scenery of Magalang atop in the belfry. In San Bartolome Church's belfry, there are four large rotary bells hanged so many years ago. These bells are rang during before and after masses, baptisms and even for the final blessings of the dead. It also featured movie shots on these bells or its tones especially in the film Ina, Kapatid Anak; and the TV Series Pangako Sa Iyo (2000) where the love teams; Jodi Sta Maria and Patrick Garcia's love scenes were shot at the belfry. 

The church bells were made by the famous bell caster, Hilario Sunico; a Chinese mestizo and a gobernadorcillo of Binondo, Manila. His bell foundry was located in #20 Calle Jaboneros, San Nicolas, Manila. He cast four large rotary bells and its inscriptions and their pictures are indicated below:

Smallest (top right): Año de 1886- 12 (arrobas) and 6 libras (pounds)
Medium Size (top left and cracked): Siendo Cura Parocco de Magalang año de 1887- 22 and 17 lbs.
Bigger Size (below left): Dedicada de la Virgen de la Correa. La Mando Fundir El M.R.P. Fr. Fernando Vasquez En. Marzo de 1889- 38 at 2 lbs
Biggest Front (below right): Dedicado A.S. Bartolome Apostol Ymandada Fundir Por M.R.P. Fr. Fernando Vasquez Con Limosanas Recosidas En El Pueblo de Magalan en 1890-61 at 3 lbs.

All of these four bells; the star of all is the biggest San Bartolome Bell. This bell is the largest bell hanged in the front of the belfry; and it completes the grand facade of the church. This bell is subject to different gossips and urban legends pertaining to its majestic mellow tone. This bell according to the old folks, when it ranged, it will produced a crystal clear tone that will hear all over Magalang and to its farther barrios because it that time, houses were made up of light materials and few vehicles were seen in Magalang; making its loud tone heard all over the town. A gossip circulated in that time; this bell was alleged taken down by the military, an order from a former president to use in a grand wedding of his daughter. Despite to all gossips and talks of the town about this bell, this bell is still hanging on the belfry, but it was rarely used due to its bad condition; especially when its clapper was broken and was replaced by a steel clapper which is made the tone of the bell very dim. Historian, Mariano A. Henson praised this bell due to its fascinating tone with the combination with the smallest bell and the Virgen de la Correa bell during plegaria and the three bells are in extraordinarily alluring harmony. 

These bells reshaped also the history of the town; especially during war times. During Philippine-American war, it was used to give warnings to the townspeople. When the Americans invaded and captured Magalang, Americans prohibited to use these bells but they allowed for religious purposes only. During Japanese period, a Japanese soldier shot the Siendo bell to stop the guerrillas to rang the bell to give warning and signal to their comrades. But after the liberation of Magalang in 1945, the joyful folks rang the bells to give a joyful message that Magalang was liberated by the Americans. 

Today, all of this bells are silenced due to its bad conditions. The Siendo bell was already cracked and unusable and the clapper of San Bartolome bell was broken, but it was replaced by a steel clapper which makes the tone of this great bell dim. Only the Virgen de la Correa bell is rang in very rare occasions. Recently, San Bartolome Parish launched a restoration project of the bells. The parish priest, Rev. Fr. Mario Sol M. Gabriel tapped the services of the Royal Bells Philippines to do the task to restore the glory of the bells. According to the bell expert of Royal Bells, Bro. Eddie Otacan; the tones of the bells especially the San Bartolome bell, "is the treasure of the midst". He added that these bells are having "one of the best bell tones in the Philippines". Recently, the project was in fund raising stage and we will hope that this project will become successful. 

These bells are the symbols of our deep faith to God. But it is also the one of the greatest treasures that will complete the Magaleños for their religious and heritage connections. 




Pampanga State Agricultural University is one of the leading agricultural universities in the Philippines. It produces finest graduates finished in degrees from agricultural courses to teacher education. PSAU's contribution to fields of agriculture traces back to the Spanish period. PSAU was initially established as La Granja Modelo de Luzon. It was established by Spanish businessmen, Don Bernardo Garcia Coteron and Don Jose Pesaña Piñol. La Granja's initial objectives was to function as agricultural experiment station for their company, Coteron y Compania to experiment cash crops especially in tobacco. It has three hundred hectares of land located in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. However, due to heavy influence of the Spanish colonial government in tobacco monopoly, and the creation of La Comision Agronomica de Filipinas in 1881, La Granja was taken over and appointed its first director, Don Jose Alemany Penalva. However due to insufficient and bad condition of the land, on March 20, 1885, it was transferred from San Isidro, Nueva Ecija to the foothills of Mt. Arayat in Magalang, Pampanga. Its royal charter was signed by Queen Maria Christina on January 30, 1886. The new are has nine hundred hectares cleared mostly by polistas. It was equipped also with school, staff building, animal pens, sugar mill, alcohol distillery and a weather observatory. La Granja was headed by a director and assisted by a perito agricola. It also housed a fifty men companias diciplinarias providing rotational security to the granja. The granja offered two programs, first and most important was a three-year sequence in farm management, leading to the title of perito agricola. The candidates who wanted this title had to demonstrate the possession of suitable secondary-level schooling in geometry, trigonometry, drawing physics, and chemistry, prior to entrance. The other program, which conferred the title of capataz de cultivo, concerned itself with the preparation of field foremen and livestock supervisors. Those who obtained these titles they were conferred as graduates equivalent to a college graduate both in the Philippines and Spain. The granja has variety of breeds of animals such as buffaloes, cattle, wild pigs, goats, horses, chickens, ducks and doves. La Granja devoted its cultivation and experimentation of wheat, sorghum, sesame, rice, corn, indigo, tobacco, peanuts, potatoes, sugarcane and alfalfa. On June 30, 1887, La Granja Modelo de Luzon won the highest diploma honor award from Exposicion de Filipinas held in Madrid, Spain in field of agriculture; especially in cultivation and exhibition of tobacco and different varieties of corn. (La Granja Modelo won the award together with famous Filipinos such as Juan Luna who won the same award for his masterpiece, Una Mestiza, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, gold medal awardee for his masterpiece, La Barca de Aqueronte and Isabelo de los Reyes, silver medal awardee for his selection, Folklore Filipina). In 1891, the granja was transformed by Governor General Valeriano Weyler into La Escuela Pecuaria. The school was expanded focusing on the study and breeding of cattle. In 1894, the weather observatory become fully operational with telegraph lines connected with the Observatorio de Manila run by the JesuitsIn 1895, the granja pioneered the experiment and study of different Central American varieties of peanuts and teosintes. In that year also, on January 23, it won silver medal award from Exposicion Regional de Filipinas in the field of cross breeding of Arabian horses, exhibition of different rice varieties and different types of farm equipment. At the outbreak of the revolution, it was used as one of the hideouts of the Spanish troops fighting the insurgents in Camansi. During the Philippine-American War, it was served as grazing area for cavalry horsesand training ground of American troops. After the war, on November 26, 1901, the Department of Public Instruction recommended the establishing of an agricultural school in granja, however it never implemented. In 1902, it was reopened by the Americans as an agricultural experiment station under Bureau of Agriculture; with Lt. Col. Charles Hatfield was designated officer in charge. On July 26, 1904, Governor General Luke Wright issued Executive Order No. 33; declaring additional areas to expand the experiment station’s area to 1,050 hectares and naming it as the Magalang Reserve to be used for agricultural experiment purposes. On 1918, it started to offer agricultural intermediate and high school education and named as Magalang Farm School and later as Pampanga Agricultural School; Mr. Frank Ebbesen was appointed first principal of the school. Subsequently, Commonwealth Act No. 313 was enacted in 1938 made the school a national institution and named it as Pampanga National Agricultural School. During World War II, it was shut down and became a military training camp of the Japanese forces. After the war, it reopened and continued operations. The Huk insurgency forced the school to suspend classes until the peace and order situation returned in 1955. On June 19, 1965, President Diosdado P. Macapagal signed Republic Act No. 4576 upgrading the school to tertiary level to become the Pampanga Agricultural College. It completed its upgrading to college status in 1974, with Supt. Felix V. Remigio was appointed first college president. On June 11, 2013, Republic Act No. 10605 was signed into law by President Benigno S. Aquino III converting the college into state university as Pampanga State Agricultural University. The Commission on Higher Education was tasked by the law to evaluate the college for its compliance with the requirements for university status. On January 13, 2015, CHED was officially granted full university status to the college; the first state college in the Philippines granted university status by CHED based on merits.

Photo Credit: Archivo Estales.mecd.es




Since its capture of Magalang by the Americans in November 5, 1899, many American infantrymen were stationed in Magalang. First of them is the 25th Infantry composed of Black American soldiers whom they garnered their nickname as Buffalo Soldiers. After an incident done by their military musician, Julius Arnold; they were relieved and they were replaced by 41st Infantry. These American soldiers were composed of volunteers and their headquarters was located in the convent of San Bartolome Church. Aside from aristocracies done by the Americans, some of them impressed to the scenic beauty, environment and simple life of Magaleños. A letter published by Glens Falls Morning Star dated March 8, 1900; which was sent by an American soldier, Private William A. Vaughan of Company F, 41st Infantry. He wrote about his experiences while he was in duty in the town of San Pedro Magalang; dated January 26, 1900: 

Bad weather is the greatest bother here, we have to boil all of it before we drink it on account of malaria, and malaria is the soldier’s worst enemy in the tropics. We are now in stationed in the town of San Pedro,Magalang, seventy miles north of Manila. Our quarters are in an old Spanish monastery, a very large building of stone. It looks as if it had been built a good many years. We let the natives to use part of it for religious purposes. There are four large bells in a tower that the natives kept ringing until we found that they signaling with the insurrectos, and now we only let them ring for vespers. The natives are dying off at a great rate. They bring in three or four bodies every day. I guess it is some plague that is killing them off. Everything is very quiet around here; has been no fighting since we came here, but we expect it every night. They never attack in day time. We have only two companies here, but we are strongly entrenched and can put up a pretty stiff fight. The Filipinos are entrenched on a mountain about the size of Buck Mountain, and the underbrush is so thick you can’t see twenty feet. Thirty of us volunteered for a scout and we got as far up the mountain as the enemy’s outposts without being seen, but did not attack them. There was a big fight on the south line a few days ago, but haven’t heard the results yet. We are having awful warm weather here now. It is hot as it as anytime last summer at home but it is cool nights. Flannel blankets don’t feel uncomfortable at all. It seem queer to be in land where flowers are in bloom and fruit in January, when back in the states the snow is probably waist deep. They don’t have many horses here, and they are poules. They use the water buffalo instead. Fruit is very cheap. You get a fine branch of bananas for a nickel and we can get all the cane sugar and molasses for nothing. The natives as a general run are a dirty treacherous looking people except mestizos, or half breeds, who are pretty good looking and educated. We always go fully armed when on the street, for we can’t trust any of them. It is my opinion that this war won’t last much longer, but I think we will serve our time out on the island, as garrison troops. I hope they will move us to some good place before the rainy season sets in. We got some parrots the other day and they are making an awful noise. The woods are full of monkeys and parrots, and lizards of all sizes crawl over you at night, but I guess they are not poisonous. I haven’t seen many snakes, but they are old whoppers. We got a water moccasin the other day seven feet long.

Taken from: From The Philippines, Glens Falls Morning Star, Thursday, March 8, 1900 page 4.


First Class Picture of Grade One Class at San Francisco Primary School
under Ms. Melania S. Mamangun. Taken in 1964
Barangay San Francisco was probably founded by Don Cristobal Lacson. It was cleared and become part of his vast landholdings covering all over the barrio and nearby barrios. After he died, it was inherited and divided among his sons, Doroteo, Aniceto and Manuel Lacson. San Francisco had seven sitios; Tambacan, Camachilles. Mapacu, Mabato-Bato, Batiawan, Calubsuban and Tinabi. The large Camachilles was inherited by Don Doroteo Lacson while Tambacan was inherited by Don Aniceto Lacson and Don Manuel Lacson, with Don Manuel had the lion's share. Later, the property of Don Manuel composed of present sitio Batiawan was sold to the couple, Don Fernando Tayag and Doña Elena Paras; founders of barrio La Paz. In 1892, the couple mortgaged the land to Don Isidoro Santos. In 1916, the land was taken over by Don Isidoro and it was inherited by his son Amado Santos. San Francisco witnessed the one of the fiercest battles in Magalang. In 1899, Major General Arthur Mac Arthur together with Col. Jacob H. Smith (who ordered the Balangiga Massacre in 1901) attacked the insurgents' position in Magalang led by Major General Servillano Aquino. Their combined forces killed 100 defenders and 50 men captured. In 1960s, San Francisco was the one of the hotbeds of insurgency in Magalang. Faustino del Mundo, known as Commander Sumulong established his quarters briefly in this barrio together with his men. San Francisco nowadays is one of the progressive barrios in Magalang. It was placed under the protection of St. Francis of Assisi. It had an independent parish carved out from San Bartolome Parish in 1996; The Lord's Epiphany Parish. San Francisco is known for its several first and second class relics enshrined in different chapels in the barrio. One of them is the first class relic of St. Francis of Assisi enshrined in the parish church last 2016. Recently, two relics was enshrined in sitios Tambacan and Mabatu Bato respectively. One of them is the second class relic of St. Claire of Assisi located in Tambacan and the first class relic of St. Padre Pio Pietrelcina located in sitio Mabatu Bato.        


Map of Magalang, 1818
Magalang in fact, is one of the oldest towns in Pampanga. It was started as visita of Arayat. However, it was separated by the Augustinian chapter in April 30, 1605, with Fr. Gonzalo de Salazar, OSA as the first pastor. According to Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin's Conquistas de la Islas Filipinas, Magalang was initially known as Magalo. This term was derived from the Kapampangan word Galo, means wavy or moving describing the dangerous flows of Parua River. Another term for Magalang is derived from the word respect. According to Fr. Diego Bergaño's Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampangan en Romance, Magalang means abundance; probably due to its rich agricultural industry especially in rice. That's why, there is a old Kapampangan quote "Balamu eca pa mecapangan pale Magalang" for those persons don't give respect to others especially to elders. Other sources indicated that Magalang was sometimes called Magala, Magao and Magalao. When the town was transferred to barrio San Bartolome in 1734, it was then called San Bartolome de Magalang due to the location of the town proper in the barrio and incidentally, the town's patron saint. After its last transfer to sitio Talimunduc in barrio San Pedro, in 1863, Magalang was then called San Pedro de Magalang, after the patron saint of barrio which the new town proper was relocated. However, the Spaniards sometimes they will pronounced Magalan because it lacks the letter Ng in the Spanish alphabet. During the early American period, it was still using Magalan, until in 1930s, it was reverted back to Magalang.

Photo Credits:

Descripcion Geografica y Topografica de la Ysla de Luzon o Nueva Castilla por Don Yldefonso de Aragon. 


Mr. William S. Irey's Cooking Apparatus 

Did you know that our ancestor's first teachers are their mothers? They teach them them on how to read and for the girls, to do household chores. But in turn of the century, Spanish friars teach us on how to pray and observe religious norms. Until 1863, the Educational Decree was promulgated; the decree states that every pueblo or town has every one school. And, according to Spanish magazine, Anuario del Comercio, Magalang has profesor y profesoras in the name of Serapion Q. Carreon, Candida Ordoñez and Paula Rodriguez educated some Magaleños at their time. When the revolution broke, the operation of the schools was halted. Until 1899, American soldiers started teaching basic English classes in Magalang. When the Thomasites arrived in 1901, one of them, Mr. William Silas Irey was deployed in Magalang in the same year. Mr. Irey was born in Marsh, West Chester, Pennsylvania. He obtained his degree in education in West Chester State Normal School (now West Chester University). He obtained thirteen years of teaching experience in the United States for thirteen years. When he was assigned in Magalang in 1901, he setup Magalang Elementary School was then located across the Magalang Municipal Hall. In 1902, he was replaced by Mr. John W. Osborn whom he was appointed later as the first principal of Pampanga High School in 1908. 

Magalang District Teaching Force circa 1939-1940. The district supervisor
that time is Mr. Pedro N. Roque (standing, forth on second row)
In 1906, Mabalacat-Magalang District was established, placing all of the public elementary schools in Mabalacat and Magalang under a supervising teacher, presently known as district supervisor. The first supervising teacher of Mabalacat-Magalang District was Mr. Joseph Flaherthy based in Mabalacat Elementary School. While the first Filipino principal of Magalang Elementary School was the maestro, Mr. Serapion Q. Carreon. In 1912, Magalang District was separated from Mabalacat District. Since then, some barrio schools was established in Magalang which become the catalyst to mold the minds, hearts and future of young Magaleños. Until 2011, Magalang District was divided into two school districts, the Magalang South District and Magalang North District. The present district supervisor of Magalang South District is Mr. Teodulo P. Esguerra, Jr. while the present district supervisor of Magalang North District is Dr. Lucrecia M. Dizon. This two school districts has the enduring legacy and heritage; and also, they are the one of the best performing school districts in Division of Pampanga. 

Photo Credits:

Cooking Apparatus by Mr. William S. Irey; United States Patent and Trademark Office, 1911; www.google.com/patents/US 1007700; Retrived: October 28, 2016.

Magalang District Teaching Force, 1939-1940 by Dr. Ignacio P. Morales


Major General Arthur MacArthur, Jr.

After successive capture of Calulut in San Fernando and Angeles by the Americans, Major General Servillano Aquino (great grandfather of former president Benigno S. Aquino III) was pushed to the southern half of Magalang. To capture the town, Major General Arthur Mac Arthur, Jr. (father of liberator, General Douglas MacArthur) ordered his 4th Cavalry to resume their march to Magalang from Calulut. The cavalry was joined by the combined forces of 17th Infantry, 1st Artillery and Signal Corps commanded by Colonel Jacob H. Smith (known for his later brutal exploits in Balangiga Massacre) whom they marched out from Angeles. They were able to join the marching 4th Cavalry along Angeles-Magalang road in barrio San Jose. In that day, they fought the forces of General Aquino and they successfully captured San Jose with 49 casualties, 15 wounded, and they took 28 prisoners. 

Major General Servillano A. Aquino

The massive American forces also captured the outpost in barrio San Francisco, with 100 casualties, and they captured 50 prisoners. In the following day, Americans captured the last stronghold of the insurgents in barrio San Pedro until they withdrew in San Bartolome Church. Americans fought a fierce battle on November 5, 1899; and in the afternoon of the same day, Americans finally captured the church and the town proper with 200 casualties on the insurgents' side. Americans also looted the town and they burned all of the houses surrounding the town proper. General Aquino made his last stand in barrio Masapinit (present day barrio San Antonio and probably, Dolores) but they were finally drove by the Americans in November 7, 1899. 

Photo Credits:

Major General Arthur MacArthur: www.wikipedia.com

Major General Servillano Aquino: The Aquinos of Tarlac by Nick Joaquin


Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila (2016), National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 44-49.