On January 1, 1942, Magalang was fell into the hands of the Japanese. Its almost three years when the Japanese changed the lives of Magaleños which they never forget. Their aristocracies and abuses makes their lives miserable. Magaleños suffered hunger and sickness and others they were banished due to maltreatment by the Japanese. However, Magalang was one of the towns in Pampanga where the Japanese are difficult to assert its control. Thanks to the guerrillas especially the Hukbalahaps who are stationed in nearby Mt. Arayat; fearlessly defended Magalang against the Japanese, engaging in guerrilla tactics. When Americans landed in Lingayen Gulf in early 1945, they rapidly advanced into the rolling lands in Luzon, recapturing and liberating every town, city, province from the hands of retreating Japanese. When the Americans landed in the nearby town of Concepcion, Tarlac;on January 24, 1945, the 37th Division of Sixth US Army, dispatched Company G of 148th Infantry to conduct patrols in nearby barrio San Roque. When they reached San Roque, the Japanese equipped with tank covered in haystack and other supporting weapons opened fire against the patrol. The Company G were forced to call reinforcements, and thus the Company B of the same regiment were dispatched to cover up. When they are reached San Roque, they're blocked unexpectedly by two hundred Japanese troops equipped with tanks. They engaged in a skirmish and the Company B managed to inflict heavy losses to the Japanese. The Company B reported that their company lost two men, five wounded, two trucks destroyed and two more trucks damaged.    

The Americans rapidly advanced on barrio Sta Maria on the same day, and while on their way, they encountered two platoons of Japanese troops dressed in civilian clothes and they are supported with light and small tanks, in addition to mortars and machine guns. The Americans encountered heavy resistance, but they managed to kill 17 Japanese soldiers and destroyed one small tank. They also managed to retreat with the help of Hukbalahaps to the foothills of Mt. Arayat. In the following day, the Company B returned in Sta Maria, and they started to shell the town proper. On January 25, 1945, when the shelling persists, Japanese positions were setup, and the townspeople left the town and they evacuated in far flung barrios. Japanese tanks were positioned in the yards of Nicolasa Q. Luciano, Leoncia P. Morales, Teodoro Ordoñez, Lorenzo Gueco, Felix Naguit, Alfonso Manaloto, Pablo A. Luciano, Juliana Cruz and the cockpit arena. However, the houses of Leoncia Morales and Alfonso Manaloto were occupied by the Japanese troops, while the church steeple was occupied by the Japanese snipers. Hukbalahaps, conferred with invading American troops, decided to attack the Japanese in town proper. The fight was started around 11:00 pm and the Japanese lost a captain and forty men. The Japanese retreated the town proper, and as they soon as they left, some daring youths entered the church and they climbed the steeple. They rang the church bells continuously to announce that the liberation was at hand. After the church bells rang, the guerrillas with lighted torches marched around the town proper and they placed an American flag at the top of church steeple. On January 26, 1945, the Americans entered the town proper amidst the rejoicing of all. All the townspeople returned to the town proper after brief evacuation, and they greeted American soldiers and raising two fingers with in a V formation for Victory! The church steeple was converted as observation post, the 148th Infantry made the public market and the railroad station as their quarters. The house of Jose P. Feliciano was made into rest house of American officers, while the house of Marcelina B. Dizon was made into residence of commanding officer of 148th Infantry. 

On January 27, 1945, some pockets of resistance were cleared up in Magalang. In the same day, the entire battle lines of Mabalacat-Magalang defense line was secured by the 2nd Battalion. They setup they quarters in barrio San Roque with the help of 1st Battalion. A skirmish between the 1st Battalion and retreating Japanese happened in barrio San Jose, The 1st Battalion managed to kill eighteen Japanese soldiers and destroyed fifteen tanks. The Japanese forces retreated to the nearby town of Mexico. Thus, Magalang was liberated by the Americans. Antonio P. Tiglao was appointed new mayor of Magalang by the restored Commonwealth government. 

Photo Credits:



Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 69-72. 



Magalang is very diversified in terms of its population. But others are migrants itself who they found their long lasting serenity in this town. Aside from natives, Chinese are the second dominant group composed of then small population of Magalang. Perhaps, the one of the famous Chinese families found Magalang as their new sanctuary is the Ayuyaos. A certain Chinese mestizo from Bacolor, Pampanga; Isidoro Licup Ayuyao established its connection to this town by marrying a certain woman, who was the one of the pioneers of sweets industry of this town, in the name of Ana Pineda David. The couple produced eleven children and their children are, Isidoro married to a schoolteacher with British stock, Leoncia Garife; Servillano married to Petra Feliciano; Trinidad married to Jose Sanchez; Claro married to Librada Mungcal; Ricardo married to Felisa Naguit; Conrado married to Josefina Rodrigo, a sister of the late Senator Francisco "Soc" Rodrigo; Porfirio married to Victoria Padilla; Magdalena married to Dominador Tumang; Rafael married to Soledad Avenir; Nunilon and Gregorio are unmarried for the rest of their lives. 

Almost of their children established their illustrious careers in various fields. Isidoro finished his law degree in the University of the Philippines; while Servillano practiced his medical profession in Magalang. Claro, practiced his dental profession also in Magalang.  He was the one of the founding members of Pampanga Dental Association, and subsequently, he was elected first president of PDA in 1931. Gregorio finished his medical degree in University of Santo Tomas; and he was credited for conducting a first successful amputation operation for the injured; due to train accidents. Ayuyaos has their hearts also to provide public service to their fellowmen. Servillano was elected mayor of Magalang in 1934; while his brother Porfirio, was elected mayor of then prosperous town of Ormoc, Leyte. Nunilon served as one of the municipal treasurers of Magalang. 

However, it was during the Japanese period when the Ayuyaos were became well known. When Mayor Jose M. Navarro was killed by the guerrillas, Japanese appointed Isidoro to become new mayor of Magalang. Isidoro bore the brunt of his risky responsibility to protect his town mates against the abuses of the Japanese.  Due to his cruel experiences, Isidoro and his family left Magalang and they temporarily reside in Paniqui, Tarlac; however, due to encouragement of Magaleños to continuously serve their beloved town, he returned to Magalang. He later established the Magalang Social Service League to provide basic services to Magaleños affected by the war. After the war, Isidoro dreamed to provide quality education by putting up a  first  secondary school in Magalang. This school was finally born in 1946 and it was christened as the Magalang Institute. This school was one of the catalyst to provide the young Magaleños a good quality secondary education. Magalang Institute; also known as MI is the one of the leading educational institutions in Magalang up to the present. However, in 1951, Isidoro, Nicasio Sebastian, his running mate; Martiniano Soliman, campaign manager and Ceferino Feliciano attended a meeting in sitio Tambacan in barrio San Francisco. While the meeting was going on, a band of Huks surfaced and they're abducted; and up to this day, their whereabouts are still unknown.  

At the present, Ayuyaos is still as one of the known families in Magalang. One of the known descendants of the Ayuyaos are; Elmer Cato, Charge' d' Affaires' of the Philippines in Iraq; Lourdes Sanchez-Carreon; who continued their legacy in sweets industry through their famous Carreon's Sweets and Pastries. In the fields of education, one of the well known is Dr. Nunilon G. Ayuyao; she was a former dean in Angeles University Foundation and she is the present president of Magalang Institute. Other known Ayuyao educators are Carmelita Mandig, former registrar of Pampanga State Agricultural University, and Magdalena G. Sarmiento, a retired teacher from Magalang Elementary School. Present Ayuyaos continued also their legacies in the fields of law and medicine. One of them is Atty. Angelo Ayuyao and his brother, Dr. Fernando Ayuyao, a lung surgeon.   

Photo Credit:

Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao; provided by Dr. Ignacio P. Morales


Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon Lino L., The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015), Manila; National Commission for Culture and the Arts, pages 123, 126 to 128, 130 and 131; 2016

Additional information provided by: Dr. Nunilon G. Ayuyao, one of the children of former mayor, Atty. Isidoro D. Ayuyao


During Spanish period, sugar industry is one of the lucrative industries in the Philippines. Sugar is made from kind of grass known as sugarcane whom its scientific name is Saccharum officinarum. Sugarcane is suitable to tropical climate and it is cultivated mostly in dry land. In the Philippines, Negros provinces and Pampanga are considered as sugar bowls due to its thriving sugar industry. In Magalang, sugar is leading products of the town, second is rice. Due to the dry condition of land, Magaleño landowners preferred to cultivate sugarcane instead of rice. When sugarcane is harvested, they will extract their juice by using centrifugal sugarcane crushers made of wood or large boulders. Later years, they will switch to iron made centrifugal sugarcane crushers to extract the juices. Famous trademark machine for milling of sugar such as Buchanan, Glasgow and Marconi. Some Magaleño landowners made their fortunes by milling sugar. Through their fortunes, they able to extend their landholdings by purchasing additional lands. They also loaned their extra pesos to small and poor farmers through talindua or pacto de retro schemes where these schemes are subject to abuses. The determinants of their wealth and prestige in Magalang like possessing large tracts of land, sugar mills, houses made of stone and wood built in poblacion or town proper and in their lands, large herds of water buffaloes or carabao, and even imported horses. In my previous post, Magalang According to Anuario del Comercio, it identified some prominent Magaleño sugar planters during Spanish period. Those in the list are the Barons, Ganzons, Guecos, Dizons, Felicianos, Dayrits, Lucianos, Lacsons, Davids and Tiamzons. One of the examples of successful sugar planters or agricultor in Magalang during that time is Don Aniceto Lacson y Suarez. According to his last will, his assets were intenfied on his Ynventario. Most of them are acquired when he was successful in sugar milling. Due to his status, he was initially appointed as cabeza de barangay and later, he was elected gobernadorcillo (mayor) of Magalang in 1891. In his last will, written in 1897, these are the list of his assets mentioned in his Ynventario:

a. Fifty male and female water buffaloes (carabao) valued in six hundred twenty pesos.

b. One Moorish Polo horse valued in thirty two pesos.

c. One carromata or carruaje valued in forty pesos.

d. Two sugar mills with corresponding utensils made of iron installed in his land in barrio San Francisco run by manual labor with value of nine hundred twenty pesos.

e. One sugar mill made of iron installed in poblacion (town proper); run by manual labor valued in two hundred forty pesos.

f. Nine carts for hauling sugarcane valued in seventy two pesos.

g. One house made of bamboo cane and nipa, with the house has thirty rods in front and thirty nine for its foundation with extension superficial valued in one hundred fifty pesos.

h. One stock house for stocking of sugar made from bamboo cane and nipa valued in twenty pesos.

i. One parcel of land located in sitio Tambacan in barrio San Francisco, with thirty seven hectares and ninety eight areas with extension superficial valued in five thousand pesos.

j. One parcel of land located in sitio Mapacu in barrio Sta Lucia, with twenty eight hectares and twenty eight areas with superficial extension valued in one thousand five hundred ninety eight pesos.

He also provided credit to his fellow planters like Don Pedro Trinidad who loaned him four hundred eighty pesos; and to Don Jacinto Rivera with four hundred pesos. The grand total of his assets together with his loaned money are worth nine thousand five hundred seventy two pesos.

However, some Magaleño planters failed to become productive to their landholdings. Sometimes, they were forced to sell their land or they will enter a contract with another landowner or pawner using pacto de retro scheme. One of the examples of the pacto contract, is the agreement entered by Fernando Tayag with Isidoro Santos of San Fernando. According to the contract signed in 1892, Isidoro Santos will lend Fernando Tayag seven thousand seventy eight pesos in exchange of his landholdings located in barrios Sto Rosario (now part of barrio La Paz) and in San Francisco with option to re-purchase. However, revolution sparked and the sugar industry in Magalang was temporarily slugged. Due to nonpayment of dues to Isidoro Santos, it was taken over by Santos in 1900s and it was added to his vast landholdings in Magalang.

During American period, Magalang was one of the major sugar producers in Pampanga. On the mechanization of agriculture in that time, some Magaleño planters were become more prosperous and their fortunes are mirrored on their heirlooms like their big Americanized mansions built on their landholdings and the evidences of advance education among of their children. Sugar industry in Magalang was gradually faded due to aggressive agrarian reform of the government, and massive urbanization of the town, in which the former sugarcane fields were converted into subdivisions and sometimes, poultry farms.

Photo Credit: Sugar Time courtesy of Alex R. Castro


Acta de protocolizacion de un testamento de este otorgado, Don Aniceto Lacson, www.familysearch.org; Retrieved: April 27, 2016.

Escritura de venta a retro de tierras otorgada por Don Fernando Tayag a favor de Don Ysidoro Santos; www.familysearch.org; Retrieved: April 27, 2016

Magalang According to Anuario del Comercio; amlatmagaleno.blogspot.com; Retrieved: January 5, 2017.


Since the creation of La Granja Modelo de Luzon in 1874, it was initially under the tight watch of Spanish company, Coteron y Compania. However, Spanish colonial government had also strong influence over the granja's operations. When La Granja was transferred its control to La Comision Agronomica de Filipinas in 1881, Spanish government through the Ministerio de Ultramar (Ministry of Colonies) in Madrid, started to appoint Spanish directors whom they holding a degree of ingeniero agronomo (equivalent to the present degree of Agricultural Engineer) or other related degrees. These Spanish directors of La Granja finished their education in Spain. Before they appointed directors of la granja, they already appointed in the same position in other agricultural institutions in Spain and in other colonies. In this post, these are the partial list of Spanish directors of the granja and their respective biographies: 

Jose Alemany Penalva- first director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon. Native of Alicante, Alicante province. He was initially appointed as catedratico (professor) of agriculture in now defunct Instituto de Baeza. He later appointed as secretary of Junta de Agricultura Industria of Castellon province. He also taught agricultural subjects in now defunct Instituto de Castellon. After his brief stint in Castellon, he served as perito de la riqueza rustica (rural farm expert) of Comision Especial de Estadistica of Seville province. Due to his extensive experience in agriculture, he was sent to the Philippines in 1881; and he was appointed as secretary of Junta de Agricultura de Manila. In the same year also, he was appointed as first director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon, whom is still located in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. He died on January 2, 1883 when their boarded ship, Lipa was exploded and sunk in Laguna de Bay together with his assistant, Luciano Lizarraga Ibarrola. According to his hoja de servicios, he was credited for writing a study for propagation of sugarcane and eucalyptus while he was in Castellon. He also conducted lectures and conferences in Castellon in the fields of agricultural meteorology, hemp propagation and agricultural sanitation. He also one of the contributors in various agricultural weekly papers like, Gaceta de Agricola, Revisitas Agricola del Liberal, La Integridad de Pabia and La Lectura de Castellon. He held several positions in various organizations in Spain; he was appointed director of Sociedad Española de Agricultura, and at the same time, he was appointed as honorary president of the same organ by King Alfonso XII of Spain. He become director of now defunct, La Escuela de Agricultura de Aranjuez, owned by Marques de Peracampo.

Mariano de Castro Gavalda- native of Madrid, he obtained his degree of perito catastro (cadastral expert) in now defunct Escuela Especial de la Topografia Catastral. He was initially appointed as ayudante practico de catastro (auxiliary cadastral expert) in Cuerpo de Topografos in Spain. Due to his excellent record, he was sent to Cuba in 1879 and he was appointed as Ynspector de Agricultura of agricultural town of Mayari, Cuba. After his brief stint in Cuba, he was sent back to Spain and he was appointed as member of Comision de Topografica. He served also as director of Estacion de Virticola y Enologica in Tarragona province in Spain, a viticulture station known for the extensive study of grape cultivation and wine making. He later sailed back to Cuba in 1882 and he was appointed as professor of Mathematics in Instituto de Segunda de Enseñanza de Sta Clara in Sta Clara, Cuba. At the same time, he also taught Mathematics in now defunct Escuela de Agricultura del Circulo de Hecudados in Havana, Cuba. During his stay in Cuba, he was appointed as board member of various government posts; he held as board member of Junta de Agricultura, Yndustria y Comercio and later, he was appointed as Ynspector y Director of Yngenios Centrales by Conde de Ybañez. Due to his exemplary service in Cuba, he was awarded by the Governor General of Cuba a prestigious Cruz de la Una Clase del Merito Militar. In 1883, Ministerio de Ultramar appointed him to his last position, as the second director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon. He sailed to the Philippines in 1883. During his tenure, he oversaw the transfer of the granja from San Isidro, Nueva Ecija to the foothills of Mt. Arayat in Magalang, Pampanga. After a year, the granja joined the Exposicion General de las Islas Filipinas held in Madrid in 1887. However, Don Mariano didn't see the success of the granja after he oversaw its transfer, he died in Magalang in the same year. After his death, la granja won the prestigious diploma honor award.

Bernardo Jimenez de Perez- he obtained his degree of Ingeniero Agronomo (Agricultural Engineering) in Instituto Agricola de Alfonso XII in 1882 (now the present Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, part of Universidad Politecnica de Madrid system in Madrid, Spain). After the death of his predecessor, Mariano de Castro Gavalda, this young director sailed for the Philippines in 1888. He held the position as third director of La Granja Modelo de Luzon until he resigned in 1891 due to health reasons.

When Americans took over the Philippines, they initially appointed American military officers as provisional directors of the granja under Bureau of Agriculture. When la granja was converted into Pampanga Agricultural School in 1918, it was headed by a school principal appointed by the Bureau of Education. It was later headed by a school superintendent in 1938 when it was converted into a national institution. Until 1974, when the school was converted into Pampanga Agricultural College, it was headed by a college president appointed directly by the president of the Philippines. And until 2015, when the college once more converted into Pampanga State Agricultural University, it was headed by the university president, appointed by the president of the Philippines. The present university president is Dr. Honorio M. Soriano, Jr.

Photo Credit: Evangelina H. Lacson collections; Angeles University Foundation; Institute of Kapampangan Studies.

Archival Sources:

Expediente personal del director de la Granja Modelo de Luzon, Bernardo Gimenez 1887/1892; http://pares.mcu.es/ retrieved: December 28, 2016

Expediente personal del director de la Granja Modelo de Luzon, Jose Alemany Penalva 1881/1883; http://pares.mcu.es/ retrieved: December 28, 2016

Expediente personal del director de la Granja Modelo de Luzon, M. de Castro Gavalda 1882/1888; http://pares.mcu.es/ retrieved: December 28, 2016

Book Sources:

Bartolo, Louie Aldrin L. and Dizon, Lino L.,Manila: The Magalang Book: The Historical Life and Culture of a Kapampangan Town (1605-2015); National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2016